Why Is Crude Oil Separated Into Different Fractions – Crude oil contains a mixture of different hydrocarbons that boil at different temperatures. The larger the hydrocarbon molecule (the length of its carbon chain is longer), the higher the boiling point. A liquid that is heated at its boiling point (liquid → gas) and begins to condense (gas → solid) liquid) just below that temperature back to liquid. Cold promotes condensation.
Simple distillation, such as separating ethanol from water, separates a single pure liquid (in this case, ethanol) from a mixture of liquids. However, fractional distillation is able to separate two or more types of water from a mixture by improving its equipment design. Liquids separated by distillation into fractions are called liquid fractions. Each part may contain one or more compounds, but each part has a temperature range. The boiling temperature is unique and different from each other.
Why Is Crude Oil Separated Into Different Fractions
To better understand the fractionation of crude oil, first examine a simple distillation process: the separation of ethanol from a mixture of ethanol and water.
Making Crude Oil Useful: Fractional Distillation And Cracking
The first rule is satisfied: the boiling point of ethanol is significantly different from that of water (78ºC vs. 100ºC). Therefore, distillation is a possible separation technique.
Check out the device shown in the image below. When the can is heated, the ethanol will evaporate first, and the vapor will rise from the flame and pass through The column separates the part into the side of the glass. The ethanol vapor is then cooled and condensed using a Liebig condenser to form a pure ethanol distillate. Evaporation occurs at the boiling point of ethanol, 78ºC, which can be checked with a thermometer on top of the fractionator.
When all the ethanol has evaporated from the solution, further heating will increase the temperature, then the water will evaporate at 100ºC, and similarly, the steam will be cooled and condensed, producing pure distilled water. Specific solution tips for the board exam you are studying for? If so, click on the links below to view our concise, easy-to-follow review guides, practice question booklets, mind maps, interactive questions, PowerPoint presentations and direct exam boards for each exam board. .
Oil is an important source of energy and demand has continued to increase since its discovery. We need energy to move our vehicles, heat our homes. Warm up and do all these things; We use natural gas, gasoline or diesel. These are extracted from crude oil that exists in large reservoirs under the Earth’s crust. A black viscous liquid with a distinctive odor extracted from underground reservoirs is called crude oil or petroleum. Humans discovered the use of oil thousands of years ago and began mining for oil. Early extraction and processing techniques were relatively simple, but as time passed and new advanced technologies were developed, crude oil processing changed and demand and consumption increased. Today, almost all areas of our lives are directly related to the oil industry and its price.
Petroleum Product Analysis
Crude oil is a viscous black liquid when extracted. It is a complex mixture of different compounds, called hydrocarbons, from methane to bitumen. The composition of crude oil varies according to the type of crude oil and the method of extraction. Hydrocarbons such as alkanes (saturated chemical molecules) are the main component of crude oil. It may also contain aromatic compounds and other compounds with nitrogen, sulfur and metals such as copper, nickel, vanadium and iron. Therefore, crude oil is the main source of these organic compounds, fractionation is done to make these organic compounds usable and usable.
Due to the difference in carbon chain length and molecular weight, the physical and chemical properties of organic molecules are also different. Melting point, boiling point, viscosity and color are related to molecular weight and structure. The boiling point of organic compounds increases with molecular weight. Molecules with a large number of carbon atoms have a large molecular weight and a high boiling point. As mentioned earlier, crude oil contains many organic compounds with different carbon chains and boiling points. Fractional distillation is the process of separating these fractions from each other. The whole process is based on the principle that different substances boil at different temperatures. For example, crude oil contains kerosene and naphtha, both of which are useful but have different uses and applications. Naphtha is used to produce gasoline (gasoline) for motor vehicles, while diesel is used in jet fuel. Both have different carbon chain lengths and structures. During distillation, the mixture of oil and tar is first evaporated and then cooled; Diesel condenses at a higher temperature than naphtha. As the mixture cools, diesel condenses first, followed by naphtha. This is how fractional distillation works. The whole process can be divided into several steps.
Crude oil recovered from oil may be an emulsion containing rock salt and some water. In the first step, crude oil is pretreated to remove water and salt (sodium chloride or brine). The desalination step is important because sodium chloride produces more corrosive hydrogen chloride gas during distillation. This strong acid, hydrogen chloride, can cause serious damage to process equipment. Desalting can be done by heating crude oil under pressure or adding demulsifiers such as soap, fatty acids and surfactants to break the emulsion.
C or higher using a heat exchanger and converted to steam. These vapors are loaded into the distillation column and move from the bottom. All processes are generally carried out in vertical towers or towers with a diameter of 0.5 to 6.0 meters and a height of 6-60 meters. The tower has temperature gradients, meaning it is hotter at the bottom and cooler at the top. It consists of a series of trays mounted to collect the parts that are eventually removed through the exit. Since different fractions have different boiling points, they condense at different heights in different stages of the column. Larger, higher molecular weight molecules remain at the bottom, while smaller, lower molecular weight molecules move up and become denser in the reservoir. The solid waxy residue is removed from the bottom, while the much lower weight molecules remain in gas form and are collected from the top. They are called LPG.
Fractional Distillation Of Crude Oil
The two major groups within the class of organic compounds derived from distillation are hydrocarbons and heteroatom compounds. Among the hydrocarbons, partial distillation produces paraffins, naphthas, unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic compounds.
Paraffin is a saturated hydrocarbon in which one carbon atom is bonded to four other independent atoms. The general formula for such compounds can be described as (CnH2n+2), where n is the number of carbon atoms in the compound. They are also called alkanes. They are the main part (30-60%) obtained from crude oil. They range from simple molecules such as methane, ethane, propane and butane to longer carbon chain molecules such as docosane (C.
) These molecules are stable and less reactive among other hydrocarbons due to saturation. Paraffins can be linear (
Paraffin). Branch chain filters perform better in internal combustion engines and are therefore more in demand. This leads to a series of chemical changes to convert n-paraffins to iso-paraffins through catalytic reforming, alkylation, polymerization or isomerization.
Fractional Distillation Definition And Examples
Gasoline, or gasoline, also falls into this category and is the primary fuel for light duty vehicles. It is a mixture of branch octane with antiknock and octane boosters. Both kerosene and popular kerosene are mostly paraffin.
Olefins, or alkenes, are not actually present in crude oil. They are produced by cracking during oil processing. Their general formula is C
.They are reactive molecules because they have double bonds in their chemical structure. They are ready to oxidize, increasing the anti-trapping properties of the finished fuel. picture Because of their reactivity, they are used in the synthesis of other organic compounds used in other chemical industries. Such chemicals are commonly referred to as petrochemicals.
They are saturated cyclic organic compounds, which are also known as naphthenes. Their general formula is the same as alkenes, CnH2n. They constitute the second largest part (30-50%) of crude oil. Dehydrogenation of these compounds produces many benzene compounds, which are important precursors for other organic compounds. They are also good for storing lubricants.
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They only produce a little crude oil. They have a high anti-knock value and are therefore very suitable for use in fuel mixtures. Their general formula is CnH2n-6. Simple aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylene are good carbon sources for further organic synthesis of petrochemicals.
The most common type of heteroatoms in crude oil are sulfur compounds. They exist in crude oil in the form of mercaptans, monosulfide and disulfides, and the general formula is R-SH, R-S-R1, R-S-S-R1, where R and R1 are alkyl groups. Cyclic sulfur compounds such as thiophene and benzothiophene are also present in crude oil. Sulfur in fuel products can form various sulfur oxides (SO
Nitrogen compounds are
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