Where Is White Matter In The Brain – The brain contains gray and white matter. Gray matter is composed of neurons with unmyelinated axons. White matter is composed of neurons with myelinated axons. The myelin sheath is white. The main thinking, perception and cognitive functions of the brain take place in the gray matter of the brain. The neurons in this part of the brain are so short that the electrical signal is not degraded from the beginning of the cell body to the axon terminal, so no ion channel inhibitor or signal amplifier is needed.
In contrast, axons, and thus the axonal pathways that travel from the cerebral cortex to the internal structures of the brain and spinal cord, are longer and require isolation and signal amplification. So where these neurons start to dominate, the brain matter actually becomes white. The interface between gray and white matter is also irregular, as the surface of the brain is filled with many hills and valleys. The gray and white object interface can be seen below.
Where Is White Matter In The Brain
This photograph of an autopsy of a human brain shows the interface between gray and white matter.
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While in this image, the gray matter is like a yellowish cream, the white matter is white as the name implies. The border where gray matter and white matter meet is called the “gray matter/white matter interface.” In such areas, there is a significant difference in the density of the brain material, which makes them more vulnerable to tensile and shear injuries during dynamic rotation of the skull.
Attorney Gordon Johnson is one of those brain injury attorneys. He is a past president of TBIG, a national group of more than 150 brain injury attorneys. He has spoken at many brain injury seminars and is the author of one of the most widely read brain injury websites on the Internet. The brain is a complex organ that controls thoughts, memory, emotions, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature. , appetite and every process that controls our body. Together, the brain and the spinal cord that originate from it form the central nervous system, or CNS.
Weighing about 3 pounds in the average adult, the brain is about 60% fat. The remaining 40% is a combination of water, protein, carbohydrates and salt. The brain itself is not a muscle. It contains blood vessels and nerves along with neurons and glial cells.
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Gray matter and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter represents the dark, outer part, while white matter represents the lighter, inner part. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: white matter is on the outside and gray matter is on the inside.
Gray matter is made up mainly of neuron somas (round central cell bodies), and white matter is mainly made up of axons (long trunks that connect neurons) wrapped in myelin (a protective sheath ). Different combinations of neuronal parts are the reason why some scans appear as two different shades.
Each region plays a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter conveys information to other parts of the nervous system.
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The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each one. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are retained in the brain, while others travel to distant extremities through the spinal cord and through the body’s vast network of nerves. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons (nerve cells).
The cerebrum (first part of the brain) consists of gray matter (cerebral cortex) and white matter in its center. The largest part of the brain, the cerebrum initiates and coordinates movement and regulates temperature. Other parts of the cerebrum are capable of speech, reasoning, thinking and reasoning, problem solving, emotion and learning. Other functions are related to sight, hearing, touch and other senses.
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Cortex is Latin for “skin” and describes the outer covering of the gray matter of the cerebrum. The folds of the cortex have a large surface area and make up about half of the brain’s weight.
The cerebral cortex is divided into two halves or hemispheres. It is covered with ridges (giri) and folds (sulci). The two parts meet in a large, deep groove (interglobular fissure, medial longitudinal fissure AAA) that runs from the front to the back of the head. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left half controls the right side of the body. The two halves communicate with each other through a large C-shaped white matter structure and neural pathway called the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is in the center of the cerebrum.
The brainstem (middle of the brain) connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord. The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
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The spinal cord extends from the bottom of the medulla and through a large opening at the base of the skull. Supported by vertebrae, the spinal cord carries messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
The cerebellum (“cerebellum”) is a fist-sized part of the brain located at the back of the head, below the temporal and occipital lobes and above the brainstem. Like the cerebral cortex, it has two hemispheres. The outer part contains neurons, and the inner part communicates with the cerebral cortex. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movement and maintain posture, balance and equilibrium. Recent studies are investigating the cerebellum’s role in thought, emotion and social behavior, as well as its possible involvement in addiction, autism and schizophrenia.
Each cerebral hemisphere (part of the cerebrum) has four divisions, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
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Sometimes called the “master gland,” the pituitary gland is a pea-like structure located deep in the brain behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland controls the function of other glands in the body, controlling the flow of hormones from the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries and testicles. It receives chemical signals from the hypothalamus through its stalk and blood supply.
The hypothalamus sits above the pituitary gland and sends chemical messages that control its function. It regulates body temperature, coordinates sleep patterns, regulates hunger and thirst, and also plays a role in certain aspects of memory and emotions.
A small almond-shaped structure, the amygdala is located at the base of each half (hemisphere) of the brain. Embedded in the limbic system, the amygdala regulates emotion and memory and is involved in the brain’s reward system, stress and the fight-or-flight response when someone feels threatened.
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A round, seahorse-shaped organ under each temporal lobe, the hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the hippocampal formation. It supports memory, learning, navigation and spatial perception. It receives information from the cerebral cortex and may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease.
The pineal gland is located deep in the brain and is connected by a stalk to the end of the third ventricle. The pineal gland responds to light and dark and releases melatonin, which regulates circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles.
Deep in the brain there are four open areas and pathways between them. It also opens to the lower arachnoid layer of the central spinal canal and meninges.
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The ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid, a watery fluid that surrounds the ventricles and spinal cord and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes away wastes and impurities, and provides nutrients.
Two sets of blood vessels supply the brain with blood and oxygen: the vertebral artery and the carotid artery.
The external carotid arteries run along the sides of the neck and are where you can feel the pulse when you touch it with your fingers. The internal carotid artery passes through the skull and supplies blood to the front of the brain.
White Matter Abnormalities
The vertebral arteries follow the vertebral column of the skull, where they join the brainstem to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the back of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels at the base of the brain that connects the major arteries, circulates blood from the front to the back of the brain and helps the arterial systems communicate with each other.
The first two nerves originate from the cerebrum, and the remaining 10 cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem, which consists of three parts: the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Don’t miss in-depth and unbiased stories about Northeast India Subscribe to our weekly newsletter for free.
White Matter Images, Stock Photos & Vectors
Who hasn’t wondered how a memory was formed, a sentence was formed, a sunset was appreciated, an act of creation was made, or a terrible crime was committed? The human brain is a three-kilogram organ that remains a mystery. But most people have heard of the brain’s gray matter, which is important for cognitive function
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