Where Is Petroleum – Proposed oil reserves are defined as the amount of oil that, based on analysis of geological and production data, is sufficient to be commercially recoverable from a specified resource after the production date and under current economic conditions.
Some of the statistics on this page are disputed and different disputed sources (OPEC, CIA World Factbook, oil companies) give different figures. Some of the differences reflect different types of oils. Different estimates may include oil shale, mined oil sands, and natural gas liquids.
Where Is Petroleum
Because proven reserves of oil include oil that can be extracted under uncertain economic conditions, countries may experience significant increases in known proven reserves, but economic development will occur in previously uneconomic fields. So, in 2003, Canada’s reserves suddenly increased and Alberta’s oil sands became economically viable. Similarly, in the late 2000s, when heavy oil in the Orinoco region was considered cheap, Prov Vezuela’s reserves increased.
Where Our Gasoline Comes From
Sometimes the source and quantity of oil reserves are different. Sometimes the difference comes from different grades of oil, sometimes from different specifications. [Data below does not include other “unconventional” oil sources such as shale oil and tar sands. For example, North American shale oil reserves exceed 3 trillion barrels,
Most of the oil produced in the United States comes from shale, which shows the paradoxical data that the United States will run out of oil in 11 years, because production comes mainly from shale, but the quoted reserves omit all shale reserves . ]
Comparison of proven oil reserves from several widely used sources (billion barrels as of Dec. 31, 2014/January 1, 2015)
Reserves are quoted in millions of barrels. The “Years of Production Available” column uses daily production data for 2016. Refineries produce gasoline and other petroleum products from crude oil and other liquids produced in the United States or imported from other countries. Almost all gasoline sold in the United States is made in the United States.
Top 10 Oil Producing Countries (updated 2022)
Most of the gasoline moves from refineries via pipelines to large storage terminals near consumption sites. Gasoline and other petroleum products are transported through pipelines that are split into bundles. These packages are not physically separated in the pipeline and some are mixed or
Of the outgoing product. Because of this mixing, gasoline and other products must be checked to ensure they meet the required specifications as they leave the pipeline. If products do not meet local, state or federal specifications, they are sent back to the refinery for processing.
Gasoline from large storage terminals is usually trucked to smaller blending terminals where it is processed into final motor gasoline. This is common when fuel ethanol is blended with gasoline. Trucks deliver finished gasoline from mixing terminal to gas station.
The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) cannot identify the origin of gasoline sold at service stations. Gasoline sold at service stations designated by a particular company is not necessarily manufactured by that company.
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Dealers who sell gasoline manufactured by various companies. Branded stations do not necessarily sell gasoline manufactured by the companies that own the station. Gasoline from several refineries is often combined for pipeline transportation, and several companies with service stations in the same region may purchase gasoline at a single bulk transport or distribution terminal.
The difference between gasoline from one company’s gas station and gasoline sold by another is that some companies mix small amounts of additives after the gasoline has left the pipeline and before it reaches the gas station.
While it is possible to identify the origin of gasoline sold at service stations, the source of crude oil and other liquids used at refineries can be different. Most refineries use a blend of crude oil from various domestic and foreign sources. The crude mix can vary depending on the relative cost and availability of crude oil from those sources. It is very difficult to underestimate the importance of oil in the development of human civilization. Petroleum is used to make gasoline, jet fuel, synthetic materials, plastics, synthetic oils, and asphalt. Several steps are required to create and then recover the oil.  First, organic matter must be stored and buried underground before it can be reduced by oxidation. Second, the organic matter must be buried deep enough to be exposed to high temperatures to convert it into oil. Thirdly, oil should not go too deep, where natural gas, graphite and high-temperature oil dissolve. Fourth, the reservoir rock must have enough pores and fractures to hold the oil. Fifth, there must be a capstone to prevent the oil from rising higher and penetrating the ground.
There are three major components to oil formation and accumulation: source rock, reservoir rock, and capillary rock (Figure 1).  Bedrock is a rock with a high content of organic matter that is converted into oil by high temperatures. Not all organic matter can be converted into oil, for example wood can only produce coal and methane. Algae residues are converted into oil and natural gas at high temperatures. The most typical host rock is shale on fine-grained clay rocks. Another example of host rock is limestone, consisting of CaCO calcite
How Oil Refining Works
The organic matter in the parent rock turns into oil at temperatures of 65-150 degrees Celsius. These temperatures reach depths of about 2,000 to 5,500 m.  Underground temperatures are above 150°C. At these temperatures, oil is irreversibly transformed into natural gas and graphite. The depth between 2000 and 5500 m is called the oil window. Only natural gas can come from this window. Other important conditions for oil production are pressure and time. Chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperatures. At low temperatures or at shallow depths, oil takes millions of years to form. If the parent rock is not buried deep enough for a long time, normal oil will not form. An example is shale oil rock.
After the oil has formed, it is pressed upwards. Under the pressure of the oil, shale rock (which is normal rock) can fracture, allowing the oil to flow upwards or horizontally. Rocks capable of storing and transporting oil are reservoir rocks.  Good reservoir rocks are porous or capable of retaining fluids, and permeability is capable of transmitting fluids. Usually these two properties are related: the higher the porosity, the higher the permeability. Many reservoir rocks are sandstones and carbonates. Sandstone is a rock composed of grains the size of sand. Carbonates composed of calcite and dolomite. Dolomite is produced from CaCO calcite
Figure 2: Estimates of undiscovered oil reserves (top) and tectonic plate distribution (bottom).  Shields have no oil deposits, shown in orange. Oil is found in orogens and basins: blue and green. (Courtesy of US Geological Survey. Source: Wikimedia Commons.)
Calcite is deposited on the seabed from the remains of shell organisms.  Calcite absorbs magnesium from water and replaces some of the calcium molecules, forming dolomite crystals. Since the density of dolomite is higher than that of calcite, pores form around the dolomite crystals within the calcite. The second effect is that the calcite dissolves in slightly acidic water (the acidity of the water may be due to the presence of CO.
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), dolomite is soluble only in highly acidic water. Thus, the calcite around the dolomite crystals dissolves and increases the pore size.
Last but not least, there should be a capstone on the surface to prevent oil seepage. The cork is a rock that cannot transmit oil. Examples of mantle rocks are shale or limestone rocks or sandstones overlaid with shale.  The presence of mantle rocks is a necessary but not sufficient condition for igneous rocks to form structures called traps in which oil and gas can accumulate.
An example of a trap is an anticline that resembles a rock dome above the reservoir rock (Figure 1).  Anticlines can form as a result of lateral thrusting of flat bedrock. Natural gas usually forms together with petroleum, which is the lightest element, and will be at the top of the sphere (if it is not completely dissolved in the oil). Then there is the oil field. Only salt water deep in the ground, called brine, is the densest and lowest part
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