Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible – The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament. But the book was excluded from Hebrew canon and assigned to the Apocrypha by Protestants. It tells the story of Judith, a Jewish widow who uses her beauty and charm to overthrow an Assyrian general and save him from oppression by Israel. Surviving Greek manuscripts contain many non-historical ideas; Therefore, some Protestant scholars consider this book to be non-historical. Instead, the book is a parable; It may be a sacred novel or a first historical novel.

Was the book of Judith originally written in Hebrew or Greek? No, obviously not. The earliest version is in the Septuagint, which may have been translated from Hebrew or composed in Greek. Details of vocabulary and expressions suggest that the text of the Septuagint was developed by translating the other books of the Septuagint based on the Greek language.

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

Current Hebrew language versions have been in the same or shorter Hebrew versions of Greek since the Middle Ages. The Hebrew versions directly name important figures such as the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes and may be placed in the time of Hell, when the Maccabees fought the Seleucid kings. The Greek version deliberately uses cryptic references to the same king, such as Nebuchadnezzar, “king of Nineveh,” as “king of Assyria.” Although the adoption of this name is not historical, it is sometimes explained as an arbitrary given name. A combination of a Babylonian ruler and an imitator.

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Although the author may be Jewish. There is no evidence other than the Septuagint that the book of Judith was considered a candidate for canonization or canonization by any group of Jews.

The Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible does not include it. It is not found in the Dead Sea Scrolls or early rabbinic literature.

Reasons for its exclusion include stability of composition; Of possible Greek origin; Also included are the Harmonic dynasty (early anti-rabbinic) and the wild and seductive nature of Judith.

However, after disappearing for more than a thousand years from communication among the Jews. References to the Book of Judith and the image of Judith reappear in the religious literature of the crypto-Jews who escaped Christian persecution after the Caliphate of Córdoba.

Tobit, Judith, And Esther

New interests took the form of “narratives of chivalry, literary poems, essays on the Talmud, and references to Jewish legal codes.”

Although the text does not mention Hanukkah; Because the story of Hanukkah took place during the Hasmonean dynasty, the Hebrew Midrashic version of the story of Judith became the custom to read on the Sabbath of Hanukkah.

Described as spoiling the enemy with cheese and wine before beheading, the Midrash mentions dairy products as the basis of Jewish ritual during Hanukkah.

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

Medieval Judaism, in this regard, sees Jude as the Hasmonean counterpart of Esther, the heroine of Purim.

Anonymous: Judith Is Praised By Ozias

The reliability of Judith’s writing is also recognized by the biblical commentator Nachmanides (Ramban), who quotes several passages from the Peshitta (Syriac version) in support of the decision of Deuteronomy 21:14.

Early Christians such as Clement of Rome; Although Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria read and used the book of Judith,

List of Brynios (1st/2nd century); Some of the earliest Christian texts are excluded, including Melito of Sardis (2nd century) and Orig (3rd century).

Jerome, when he prepared the Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Baal Gate, counted it among the Apocrypha.

Judith And Her Maidservant With The Head Of Holofernes By Artemisia Gentileschi

(Although he later changed his mind, referring to it as scripture, saying it was only expressing Jewish thought.) Like Athanasius,

Augustine, Basil of Caesarea; Tertullian John Chrysostom Ambrose, influential church fathers and doctors, including Bede the Worable and Hilary of Poitiers, considered Judith’s canon before and after canonization, before and after the councils.

He says that the Book of Judith was “counted by the Council of Nice among the Holy Scriptures.” Interestingly, no such declaration is found in the Canons of Nicaea; It is not certain whether Jerome was referring to the use of the book during the deliberations of the council or was referring to erroneous references to that council.

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

Catholic apologist Jimmy Akin has speculated that Jerome was correct that the Council of Nicaea established a doctrine and that the records were lost.

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Despite Judith’s position in Nicaea, the book was accepted as holy scripture by the councils of Rome and Hippo (393); Carthage (397) and Flores (1442) can also be linked to the Roman Catholic Church. 1546 At the Council in Trt.

The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts Judith as inspired scripture. It was confirmed at the Council of Jerusalem in 1672.

Judith’s doctrine is generally rejected by Protestants, who accept only the books included in the Jewish canon as Old Testament.

Martin Luther saw the book as allegorical, but listed it as the first of eight writings in his Apocrypha.

Mantegna, Andrea: Judith With The Head Of Holofernes (1495)

In Anglicanism it has central authority over the Old Testament Apocrypha and is seen as useful or editorial, but not as a basis for establishing doctrine.

Judith is also mentioned in Book 1 Maccabees, Chapter 28, which is considered canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tiwahedo Church.

The story revolves around Judith, a brave and beautiful widow who is disappointed that she did not trust God to save her Jewish nation from their foreign conquerors. She accompanies her faithful maid to Holofernes’s camp, where she gently invites him and promises to give him information about the Israelites. She gains his trust and one night gets his phone while drunk. He cut off his head and returned to the land of terror. The Assyrians, having lost their leader, were scattered, and Israel was saved.

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

The book of Judith can be divided into two sections or “acts” of roughly equal length. It describes the growing threat to Israel under the leadership of the evil king Nebuchadnezzar and his henchman, General Holofernes, and concludes as Holofernes’ worldwide expedition gathers in the valley where Judith’s village of Bethulia is located.

Judith With The Head Of Holofernes (y1984 33)

Chapters 8-16 introduce Judith and show her heroic actions to save her people. Although the first part is boring

His description of military development develops important themes by revolving around reflections and battles, awakened by rest. In contrast, the second half focuses on Judith’s character and plot twists.

Both “acts” in the New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha have a clear chiastic pattern that can be reversed at the center of the narrative (ie, abcc’b’a’).

Similarly, S. Parallels within Part II are noted in the Notes to the Revised Edition of the American Bible: Judith calls a town meeting before her campaign in 8:10, and Judith is praised by such a meeting in 13:12-13. Uzziah first blesses Judith in Judith 8:5 and then in Judith 13:18-20.

Judith Beheading Holofernes (caravaggio)

Most contemporary biblical scholars, such as Gianfranco Ravasi, generally regard Judith as one of several contemporary texts; It will either be read as an elaborate allegory in the form of historical fiction, or as a work of literary propaganda from the period of Seleucid oppression. .

Judith fits into many Old Testament “rituals of deliverance,” especially the story of Deborah and Jael (Judges 4-5) who seduced Sisera, the Canaanite chieftain, before beating him with a cane. to his forehead.

Genesis 34 also has thematic connections to Simeon and Levi’s revenge on Shechem after the rape of Dinah.

Where Is Judith Found In The Bible

Judith has been invoked in a wide range of texts as a multifaceted allegory in the Christian West. As “Mulier Sancta”, she was associated with the Church and many virtues – humility, justice, strength, holiness (Holophernes’ pride, tyranny, decadence, lust) – and she appeared as the second female hero of the Hebrew heroes. Canonical tradition built on a character model of the Virgin Mary. His gder made him a symbol of the biblical paradox of “weakness in strength”; So, he was with David. The beheading of Holofernes parallels that of Goliath—both actions saved the Covenant people from a military-savvy enemy.

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The heroine of the book, Judith, introduced in chapter 8, is a holy woman. She was the daughter of Merari from the tribe of Simeon.

Challenging Uzziah to point the finger at the Assyrians if God had not saved the people of Bethel in five days, she uses her charms to make a friendly peace for Holofernes, leaving the Israelites to fight against the Assyrians. Judith’s maid, who is not named in the story, stays with her throughout the narrative.

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