Where Does The Name Pakistan Come From – This article is about the geographic region. For the province of Pakistan, see Baluchistan, Pakistan. For the province of Iran, see Sistan and Baluchistan. For the region of Afghanistan, see Baluchistan, Afghanistan. For other uses, see Baluchistan (disambiguation).
(/bəˈlɒtʃɪstɑːn, bə ˌlɒtʃɪˈs tɑːn, -s tæn / bə-LOTCH -ist-a(h)n, -(A); Balochi: Balochistan; also romanized as Southwest Asia) is a historical region in Balochistan and Baluchi. , located in Southeast Asia. The Iranian plateau and on the border of the Indian Plateau and the coast of the Arabian Sea. This arid desert and mountainous region is primarily inhabited by the Balu people.
Where Does The Name Pakistan Come From
The Baluchistan region is divided between three countries: Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The administration includes the Pakistani province of Baluchistan, the Iranian province of Sistan and Baluchistan, and the southern regions of Afghanistan, including the provinces of Nimruz, Helmand, and Kandahar.
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The region borders Pashtunistan to the north, Sindh and Punjab to the east, and the territories of Iran to the west. Its southern coast, including the Makran coast, is washed by the Arabian Sea, especially in its western part, the Gulf of Oman.
Proportion of people with Balochi as mother tongue in each district of Pakistan in 2017 Pakistan census.
Proportion of people with Brahui as their mother tongue in each district of Pakistan as of 2017 Pakistan Census
Since the Baloch are not mentioned in the pre-Islamic sources, it is possible that the Baloch were known by another name in their area and got the name “Balochis” only after they arrived in Balochistan sometime in the 10th year.
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Johann Hansmann associates the word “Baloch” with Meluhha, a name believed to be known to the Indus Valley Civilization from the Sumerians (2900-2350 BC) and the Akkadians (2334-2154 BC). ) in Mesopotamia.
However, Hansmann says that traces of it in a modified form, such as Baluhu, are preserved in the names of products imported from the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC).
In 985 AD, it was inhabited by a people called Balushi (Baluchi), which led Hansmann to write “Balukh” as a modification of Meluhha and Baluhu.
Asko Parpola connects the word Meluḫḫa with the Indo-Aryan words Mlekcha (Sanskrit) and Milakkha / Milakku (Pali) etc. proto-Dravidian in origin, he interprets the name as the proper name Milu-Akam (from which Tamilkam arose when the Indus people migrated south) or Melu-Akam, meaning “high country”, a possible reference to the high lands of Baluchistan.
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Historian Romila Thapar also interprets Meluhkha as a proto-Dravidian name, perhaps mēlukku, and suggests the meaning “western end” (of the Dravidian-speaking regions of the Indian subcontinent). The literal Sanskrit translation, aparānta, was later used to describe the region by the Indo-Aryans.
During the time of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), the Greeks called the land Gedrasia and its people Gedrasoi, names of unknown origin.
Using etymological reasoning, H.V. This reasoning remains speculative.
Almost 5100 years ago, many tribes left the settlement in Central Asia and migrated west, south and southeast. These people were called Aryans and a part of them were known as Indo-Iranian tribes. Some of the Indo-Iranian tribes settled in northwestern Iran in Balashakan. These circumstances forced this group of international priests, known at the time as Balashczyk, to migrate en masse from their original country. After many journeys of wandering and suffering, these nomadic shepherds finally settled in the southern and eastern borders of Iran. Here they changed from Balashchik to Baloch, and the name of the region in which they settled became known as Baluchistan, “land of the Baluch”.
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A large Belushki rug, from the 19th century. Alternate rows feature cypresses and Turkm Gul motifs in photographic color. The dark colors of the background are characteristic of Baloch fabrics. It is possible that this was a commission from a tribal khan or chief for ceremonial use.
The first evidence of human habitation in present-day Baluchistan is dated to the Paleolithic period, represented by camps and scattered, broken lithic tools and stone tools. The earliest settlements in the area date back to the Ceramic Neolithic (
7000-6000 BCE) and includes the site of Mergarh on the Kachhi Plain. Villages increased in size during the Chalcolithic period that followed, where cooperation was expanded. This included the distribution of finished goods and raw materials, including shell, lapis lazuli, turquoise and pottery. By 2500 B.C. (Bronze Age), the area now known as Pakistani Baluchistan became part of the Harappan culture,
From the 1st century to the 3rd century CE, the region was ruled by the Paratharai (lit. “money kings”), an Indo-Persian dynasty. The lineage of the Parathas is thought to be the same as the Parathas of the Mahabharata, the Puranas and other Vedic and Iranian sources.
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The Paratha kings are known primarily for their coins, which show the emperor’s crest (with long hair on his head) in a rare setting, and a round-footed swastika on the reverse, written in Brahmi (usually silver coins) or Haroshti (copper coins). These coins are found mainly in Lorelei in present day West Pakistan.
During the wars between Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) and Emperor Darius III (336-330 BC), the Baluch were allied with the last emperor Ahamid. According to Shusteri (1925), Darius III, after much hesitation, assembled an army at Arbela to oppose the invading Greek army. His cousin Besius was the commander in charge of the fortresses of Balch. Barzantis was the commander of the Balochi army, Okeshtra was the commander of the army of Khuzestan, Masseus was the commander of the army of Syria and Egypt, Ozbd was the commander of the Medes, and Firtafirna led the Sakas and the forces of Tabaristan, Gurgan. . , and Khurasan. Of course, as part of the losing side, the Baluchis certainly received their punishment from the victorious Macedonian forces.
During the reign of the Arab kingdoms, Central Iran suffered from the attacks of the Ghaznavids, the Mongols, the Timurids, and the invasions of the Ghuz Turks. The relationship between the Baloch and almost all powers is hostile, and the Baloch suffered greatly during this period. The Baloch are fighting fiercely, and the subsequent disasters of the Baloch tribes have forced them to move out of the conflict zones and settle in far and near places. Bloody conflicts with the Boids and Seljuks contributed to the migration of the Baloch tribes from Kerman to the east.
Herodotus in 450 BC. described the Paraitakoi as a tribe ruled by Deiox, king of Persia, in northwestern Persia (History I.101). Arrian describes how Alexander the Great opposed the Paratakae in Bactria and Sogdiana and defeated them with Crater (Anabais Alexandrou IV). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century AD) describes the Paradon region outside Omani territory, on the coast of modern Baluchistan.
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The second division, carved out of Quetta Division and Kalat Division in 1974, derives its name from Rani Sevi, the ruler of the Sewa dynasty.
The region was fully Islamic in the 9th century and became part of the territory of the Saffards of Zaranj, followed by the Ghaznavids, the Ghorids. Ahmad Shah Durrani made it part of the Afghan Empire in 1749. In 1758, the Khan of Kalat, Mir Nori Naser Khan Baloch, rebelled against Ahmed Shah Durrani, defeated him and liberated Balochistan, gaining full independence.
Relations between the Ghaznavids and the Baluch were never peaceful. Turan and Makuran came under the rule of Ghaznavid founder Sebuktegin as early as 976-977 AD (Bosworth, 1963). The Baloch tribes fought against Sebuktegin who attacked Khuzdar in 994. The Baluch were in the army of Safavid Amir Khalaf and fought against Mahmud when Ghaznavid forces invaded Sist in 1013 (Moir, 1924). Several other occasions have been mentioned by historians of the Ghaznavid era where the Baluch encountered Ghaznavid forces (Nizam al-Mulk, 1960).
There are only passing accounts of Count Balochi and the Mongol group. In one of the old Baloch wars, there was a Baloch prince, Shah Baloch, who, no doubt, bravely resisted the Mongol advance somewhere in Sistan.
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During the long period of mass migration, the Balashes moved to populated areas and it could not remain as it was. Constant migration, hostile attitudes of other tribes and rulers and bad weather destroyed most of their livestock. Sustainable agriculture has become necessary for the survival of herds and population growth. They began to combine sustainable agriculture with animals. The Baloch tribes now consisted of a sedentary and nomadic people, a structure which remained unchanged in the Balu tribes until
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