Where Does Petrol Come From – U.S. refineries produce gasoline and other petroleum products from crude oil and other liquids produced in the United States or imported from other countries. Almost all gasoline sold in the United States is produced in the United States.
Most gasoline travels through pipelines from refineries to large storage facilities near consumption areas. Gasoline and other petroleum products are transported in batches through common pipelines. These lots are not physically separated into pipelines and some mixing or
Where Does Petrol Come From
, products are sourced. Because of this mixture, gasoline and other products must be tested as they leave the pipeline to see if they meet the required specifications. If products do not meet local, state, or federal specifications, they are sent back to the refinery for further processing.
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From large depots, gasoline is often transported by truck to smaller blending depots for processing into finished motor gasoline. Here the fuel is usually ethanol mixed with gasoline. The tank truck transports the final motor gasoline mixture from the station to the fuel station.
WE. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) was unable to determine the specific source of gasoline sold at gas stations. Gasoline sold by a company at its branded fuel stations is not produced by the company itself.
Dealers can sell gasoline produced by different companies. Branded stations cannot sell gasoline produced by the companies that own the stations. Gasoline from different refineries is often combined for transportation by pipeline, and different companies that own service stations in the same area can purchase gasoline at a single large storage and distribution facility. .
The difference between gasoline from one company’s gas station and gasoline sold by another is what some companies add to gasoline after it leaves the pipeline and before it reaches their gas station.
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The origin of gasoline sold at gas stations can be determined, but the origin of crude oil and other liquids used in refineries can vary. Most refineries use a blend of crude oil from a variety of domestic and foreign sources. Crude oil blends can vary depending on relative prices and availability of crude from those sources. The fuel, gasoline, diesel or LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) used in modern automobiles must meet high purity standards. The car engine runs smoothly.
Crude oil is separated into its component hydrocarbons in the separation column. Lighter hydrocarbons, including gasoline, are extracted from the top of the column while heavier hydrocarbons, such as diesel, are extracted from the bottom.
Modern fuels must be volatile enough to ignite quickly even under adverse conditions, and they must have the right mixture of hydrocarbons to ignite enough to produce useful energy in an internal combustion engine. The fuel must also have the correct octane number to avoid turning pink (exploding too quickly) that can damage the engine.
Internal combustion engines are optimized to run on specific fuels and tuned to run close to the limits the fuel can support, so consistent quality is important for modern fuels. .
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Both gasoline and diesel are derived from crude oil, which is a complex mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons and other products that must be removed during refining. Crude oil varies by source; They typically contain lighter volatile liquids, including gasoline, as well as heavier, quasi-solid components such as tar.
Separating and refining gasoline and diesel from crude oil requires complex processes, performed in refineries.
Oil is refined into its components through a process called fractional distillation. It separates the different components of crude oil based on the fact that they boil at different temperatures and produce vapor.
The first process is performed in a fractional column in a 250-foot (75 m) tall cylindrical tower, inside which 30 to 40 trays, called fractional trays, are stacked. The bottom of the column is kept very hot but the temperature drops as it goes up the column, so each tray is slightly cooler than the bottom.
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Crude oil is preheated between 315°C and 370°C to evaporate all but the heavy components. It is then delivered to the bottom of the fractionation column as a mixture of gas and liquid. The oil vapor fraction rises to the column through devices such as bubble caps, into the fractionation tray thoroughly mixed with the available liquid. The oil is still liquid, the heavier will move to the bottom of the column.
As the steam rises, the tray cools down to its decreasing temperature. Whenever steam rises and bubbles form in the tray that has a temperature that matches the boiling point of one of the vapor’s components, that component condenses in the tray. Next, steam with a high boiling point is passed through the column.
Thus, each component of the vapor encounters the tray in which it condenses. The result is a series of discrete components, called fractions, that can be removed from the column through pipes.
There are six main parts. The lightest, which is still the gas when it reaches the top of the column, is called a refinery gas and is used by the refinery itself as a fuel.
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The remaining subsequent processing is done at the factory. The resulting liquid fractions are lighter and more volatile and are used for blending with gasoline.
Later, naphtha (used for further treatment in petrochemicals or as an alternative blending into gasoline), kerosene (basically paraffin), diesel, light and heavy oils were used for industrial lubrication, and then the heaviest part, bitumen, is released. a relic
A basic fractional distillation process separates crude oil into its pure chemical hydrocarbons. But some of these hydrocarbons are more valuable than others. Especially the demand for gasoline is higher than that of asphalt or diesel. As a result, some heavy fractions are converted to gasoline in refineries. This is done through a process called jailbreaking.
In thermal cracking, hydrocarbons are heated at high pressures from 450°C to 540°C. The result is a low-quality fuel that is refined at high temperatures and pressures to produce gasoline of sufficient quality for use in automobile engines.
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Catalytic cracking is more useful than thermal cracking because it gives a higher yield of useful products. By adding a catalyst (usually aluminum-silica powder) to the oil in a preheating step, the heavy fractions can be broken down into a mixture of lighter fractions, which are fed to the fractionation column for separation.
These conversions are done after processing steps where appropriate additives are introduced to make the blended gasoline suitable for winter or summer use.
To be useful for running an internal combustion engine, gasoline must have certain properties. This engine will ignite smoothly over a wide range of speeds and power outputs without detonation. This manifests as a ‘knocking’ sound and can cause serious engine damage if continued.
Gasoline should have some volatile components that allow the engine to start easily in cold weather. But gasoline shouldn’t be so volatile that it evaporates too easily and causes fuel system locking or carburetor freezing (see sideline, right).
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The efficiency of gasoline is mainly measured by its octane rating. To do this, gasoline is compared to two standard fuels of known efficiency called n-heptane and iso-octane, both of which are hydrocarbons. N-heptane is a poor fuel for internal combustion engines and therefore causes strong knocking; Its octane number is 0. Isooctane is the opposite, a much higher quality fuel with an octane rating of 100.
If gasoline has an octane rating of 90, that means it gives the same performance as a mixture of 90 parts iso-octane and 10 parts neheptane. Most car engines require gasoline with an octane rating of 90 to 100.
As an additional anti-knock measure, it is common practice to add small amounts of tetraethyl or tetra-methyl lead to gasoline. However, due to the toxic nature of lead, it is decreasing.
In 1986, the maximum allowable amount of lead in gasoline was reduced from 0.4 to 0.15 grams per liter and unleaded gasoline appeared on the European market. It is gasoline with no added lead compounds.
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Amount of fuel that vaporizes at a given temperature – certain limits must be met. If the volatility is too low, the car engine is difficult to start and takes a long time to idling. If it is too high, the motor may
. Volatile fuel in extreme conditions can cause carburetor freezing because as the fuel evaporates, it absorbs heat from the surroundings, significantly cooling the carburetor body.
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