What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight – Canopus is the brightest star in the southern constellation Carina and the second brightest star in the night sky. Also known as α Carinae, Latin for Alpha Carinae. At a visual magnitude of -0.74, it is eclipsed only by Sirius. Located about 310 light years from the Sun, Canopus is a light giant of spectral type A9, so it is essentially white to the naked eye. It has a brightness more than 10,000 times that of the Sun, is eight times more massive and has expanded to 71 times the radius of the Sun. Its large photosphere has an effective temperature of around 7,400 K. Canopus is burning helium in its core and is currently in the blue ring phase of its evolution, having already passed through the great red branch after exhausting the hydrogen in his heart . Canopus is the source of the X-rays, presumably emitted from its corona.

Canopus’ distinctive appearance means that he became the subject of mythological tradition among many ancient peoples. It is generally considered that its proper name derives from the legendary Canopus, who was the navigator of Melau, king of Sparta. The Acronichal Revolt marked the date of the Ptolemaic feast in Egypt. In ancient India, Agastya was named after a revered Vedic sage. To Chinese astronomers, he was known as the Old Man of the South Pole.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

The name Canopus is a Latinization of the ancient Greek name Κάνωβος/Kanôbos, recorded in Claudius Ptolemy’s Almagest (circa 150 AD). Eratosthes used the same spelling.

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The name has two possible origins, both listed in Richard Hinckley’s All Key Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized the Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize correct names for stars.

The first July 2016 WGSN bulletin included a chart of the first two sets of names approved by WGSN that included Canopus for this star.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

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The German celestial cartographer Johann Bayer – as the constellation’s brightest star – gave it the designation α Argus (in Latin Alpha Argus) in 1603. In 1763, French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille divided the immense constellation into three smaller ones,

And from Canopus became α Carinae (Alpha Carinae in Latin). It is listed in the Bright Star catalog as HR 2326, in the Draper Games catalog as HD 45348, and in the Hipparcos catalog as HIP 30438.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

Flamsteed did not number this southern star, but Benjamin Apthorp Gould gave it the number 7 (7 G. Carinae) in his Uranometria Argtina.

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An occasional name in English is Soheil or feminine Soheila; in Turkish it is feminine Süheyl or Süheyla, from the Arabic name for many bright stars, سهيل suhayyl,

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

Alternative spellings include Suhail, Souhail, Suhilon, Suheyl, Sohayl, Suhayil, Shoel, Sohil, Soheil, Sahil, Suhayeel, Sohayil, Sihel, and Sihil.

Another name was Wazn “school” or Haḍar “land”, probably related to its low position near the horizon.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

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The Spanish Muslim astronomer Ibn Rushd went to Marrakesh (in Morocco) to observe the star in 1153 as it was invisible in his native Córdoba, Al-Andalus. He used the different visibility at different latitudes to argue that the Earth is round, following Aristotle’s argument that such an observation was only possible if the Earth was a relatively small sphere.

The English explorer Robert Hues brought Canopus to the attention of European observers in his Tractatus de Globis in 1592 along with Achernar and Alpha Ctauri, noting:

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

“There are, therefore, only three stars of the first magnitude, which I could perceive in all those areas which are never seen or seen here in the gland. The first of these is the star that bright one at the back of the Argus, which they call.” Canobus. which is in d Eridana. The third is in the right leg of Ctaure.” [27]

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In the Southern Hemisphere, Canopus and Sirius are visible simultaneously high in the sky, reaching the meridian at just 21 minutes. Brighter than first magnitude, Canopus can be seen with the naked eye in early twilight. Canopus, which is mostly visible between mid and late summer in the southern hemisphere, reaches its peak at midnight on December 27th.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

From latitudes south of 37° 18′ S. con. Canopus is a circumpolar star. As Canopus is so far south in the sky, it never rises in mid-latitudes to the extreme north; theoretically, the northern limit of visibility is latitude 37° 18′ North. This is south of Aths, Richmond, Virginia (USA) and San Francisco and very close to Seville and Agrigt. It is almost exactly the latitude of Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, California, from which it can be seen clearly due to the effects of altitude and atmospheric refraction, which increase its elevation by another degree. In ideal conditions, it can be seen as far north as 37°31′ off the Pacific coast.

It is most easily seen in places like the Gulf Coast and Florida and the island of Crete (Greece), where the best time to watch is around 9:00 p.m. it’s the end of January and the beginning of February.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

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Canopus has a B-V color index of +0.15, where 0 is blue-white, meaning it is essentially white, despite being called yellow-white. The spectral type of Canopus should be listed as F0 and the hottest increment A9. It is less yellow than Altair or Procyon, with indices measured as 0.22 and 0.42, respectively.

Some observers have seen Canopus as yellow because it is low in the sky and therefore subject to atmospheric influences.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

Canopus was first proposed as a member of the Scorpius-Ctaurus association, but is not located near subgroups of this association and has not been included as a member of Sco-C in film studies that have used Hipparcos astrometric data.

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In 2014, astronomer Eric Mamajek reported that the highly magnetically active M dwarf (with strong coronal X-ray emission), 1.16 degrees south of Canopus, appears to share a common right motion with Canopus. The predicted distance for the M dwarf 2MASS J06234738-5351131 (“Canopus B”) is about 1.9 parsecs. However, despite this large separation, it is still within the estimated tidal radius (2.9 parsecs) for the giant star Canopus.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

No star closer to Canopus is brighter than it, and it is the brightest star in Earth’s night sky during three periods in the last four million years. Other stars only appear brighter during relatively transient periods, when they get much closer to the Solar System than Canopus. About 90,000 years ago, Sirius came close enough to outshine Canopus, and remained so for the next 210,000 years. But in 480,000 years, when Sirius has moved away and is fading, Canopus will be brighter again and will remain so for about 510,000 years.

The southeast wall of the Kaaba in Mecca is aligned with the rising point of Canopus also known as Janūb.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

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The Bedouins of the Negev and Sinai knew Canopus as Suhayl and used it along with the North Pole as the two main stars for night navigation. Because it disappears below the horizon in these areas, it is associated with a variable nature, unlike the always visible Polaris, which was circumpolar and “fixed”.

The southern celestial pole can be roughly located with Canopus and another bright star, Achernar, as the three form an equilateral triangle. Canopus lies on an imaginary line that extends 36° one way to Sirius and 37° to the south celestial pole.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

Canopus’s brightness and location far from the ecliptic make it useful for space navigation. Many spacecraft carry a special camera called the “Canopus Star Tracker” along with the Sun to determine attitude. Mariner 4 used Canopus to stabilize the second axis (after closing to the Sun) in 1964, the first time a star was used.

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Canopus was little explored by the Western Scythians before the 20th century. In 1897 the spectral class F was given, a first application of this extension to Secchi class I, applied to those stars where the hydrogen lines are relatively weak and the calcium K line relatively strong.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

It was listed as a standard F0 star in the Hry Draper catalogue, with the spectral type of F0 described as a hydrogen line half as strong as an A0 star and a calcium K line three times stronger than Hδ.

American astronomer Jesse Grestein was interested in stellar spectra and used the newly built Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory to analyze the star’s spectrum in detail.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

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In a 1942 paper, he stated that the spectrum was dominated by strong broad hydrogeal lines. There are also absorption lines for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, iron, and many ionized metals.

It was studied in the ultraviolet region by the first astronomy satellite Gemini XI in 1966. The UV spectra were thought to be an F0 supergiant with a temperature of 6,900 K, which were the then accepted parameters for Canopus.

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

New Zealand astronomers John Hearnshaw and Krishna Desikachary studied the spectrum in more detail and published their results in 1982.

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When luminosity classes were added to the MK spectral classification scheme, Canopus was assigned a laboratory class indicating a giant of intermediate luminosity. This is based on relative strengths

What Is The Brightest Star In The Eastern Sky Tonight

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