What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called – Cerebral swelling or cerebral edema refers to an increase in fluid in the brain due to various causes. This causes increased intracranial pressure and is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment.

Therefore, unlike swelling of other tissues, cerebral edema should be diagnosed and treated immediately; Otherwise, it can cause permanent damage to brain tissue, leading to permanent neurological deficits or death from brain tissue. This is a medical emergency.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

The incidence of cerebral edema is uncertain, but it is a very common condition and is often secondary to several underlying diseases. Cerebral edema has a vague picture without specific signs and symptoms, and is often underdiagnosed. There is no specific diagnostic test for cerebral edema. The diagnosis is often made during an autopsy.

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Cerebral edema can be caused by traumatic brain injury or non-traumatic brain injury, as well as by various factors outside the brain.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

The mechanism of development of cerebral edema is complex. It can be caused by a systemic disease or local pathology of the brain.

Cerebral edema is difficult to diagnose without proper examination and detailed evaluation. Some signs and symptoms to look for after a head injury or infection that may indicate cerebral edema include:

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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Cerebral edema is clinically difficult; The presence of one or more of the above-mentioned symptoms, as well as the presence of a detailed neurological examination after the medical history, may lead to suspicion, which should be confirmed by the following tests.

Imaging tests – CT vs. MRI (imaging of the head to determine the location and extent of the tumor)

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is now routinely monitored in patients with suspected elevated intracranial pressure. Three methods of monitoring ICP include the use of an intraventricular catheter, a subdural (under the skull) catheter, or an epidural (between the skull and the skull) catheter.

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If meningitis is suspected, lumbar puncture is necessary. However, it is important to note that due to increased internal pressure during lumbar puncture, there is always a risk of herniation. A CT scan of the head is required before performing a lumbar puncture.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

An EEG is done to measure brain activity during a seizure. In this test, electrodes are attached to the patient’s head and the electrical activity of the brain is measured, which is displayed as a graph on a moving paper or computer screen.

Cerebral edema is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate treatment. Treatment options include restoring blood and oxygen flow to the brain while reducing swelling. Any underlying cause should also be addressed to prevent further damage. Various treatment options are included

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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Osmotherapy is a treatment that aims to remove water from the brain. This is done with osmotic agents such as mannitol, saline, glycerin and drugs such as furosemide. Osmotherapy helps to improve blood flow in the brain, as well as reduce swelling and intracranial pressure.

Hypothermia has been shown to protect the brain by reducing metabolism and conserving energy. Hypothermia can last several days and disappear as organ function improves.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

Sometimes you can resort to controlled hyperventilation to reduce internal pressure. Hyperventilation reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. The patient should be put on mechanical ventilation. Optimal cerebral blood flow depends on carbon dioxide, and controlling this process reduces cerebral blood flow and helps reduce intracranial pressure.

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This is an invasive procedure to remove fluid from the brain. The doctor will make a small incision in the skull and insert a tube into the space (ventricle) of the brain. This method will help to eliminate ICP.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

More severe cases of cerebral edema may require surgery to relieve intracranial pressure. This may mean removing part of the head or removing the source of the tumor, such as a tumor.

Preventing cerebral edema is not always easy. However, the following measures can reduce the incidence of cerebral edema in at-risk patients.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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This site uses cookies to provide our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understood our cookie policy, privacy policy and our terms of use. Well, that’s understandable. Cerebral edema is a serious complication of stroke that is associated with prolonged hospitalization and poor outcomes. Cerebral edema impairs cerebral perfusion and may also cause transtentorial herniation. As a physical and biochemical barrier between the peripheral circulation and the central nervous system (CNS), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) ​​plays an important role in maintaining a stable microenvironment of the central nervous system. In pathological conditions, such as ischemic stroke, disruption of the BBB leads to increased paracellular permeability, which directly contributes to the extravasation of blood components into the brain and causes cerebral vasogenic edema. Recent studies have led to the discovery of the glymphatic system and the meningeal lymphatic system, which allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain and drain surrounding lymph nodes and interact with the peripheral immune system, modulating immune surveillance and brain responses. . A deeper understanding of the function of the cerebral lymphatic system challenges the known mechanisms of cerebral edema after stroke. In this review, we first discuss how BBB disruption after stroke may cause or contribute to cerebral edema in terms of molecular and cellular pathology. Finally, we discuss how the cerebral lymphatic system is involved in the development of cerebral edema after stroke and the pathophysiological processes involved in the development of cerebral edema after stroke at both the BBB and the cerebral lymphatic system. Let’s summarize.

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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Globally, stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults and the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 13.7 million patients annually (GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, 2016 ; Phipps and Cronin, 2020). Stroke includes ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and cerebral hemorrhage, of which ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all stroke cases (GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, 2016). All of these are accompanied by cerebral edema and tissue swelling in a certain volume of the skin, caused by edema, which has a mechanical effect on the neighboring tissues and capillaries, which leads to increased blood loss, ischemia and edema. becomes tissue injury (Simard et al., 2007; Rungta et al., 2015; Leinonen et al., 2017). Malignant cerebral edema is a devastating complication of ischemic infarction, accounting for 10% to 78% of patients with all forms of ischemic stroke (Wu et al., 2018). This can lead to massive cerebral edema, further increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), rapid neurological deterioration and transtentorial herniation (Hutner and Schwab, 2009). The mortality rate in patients with malignant cerebral edema approaches 80% (Hutner, Schwab, 2009). However, treatment options for cerebral edema remain limited and available treatments are suboptimal. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of edema formation.

Cerebral edema occurs in three distinct phases that mature distinctly in time and space: an early stage of cytotoxic edema, followed by an ionic edema phase, and the most severe vasogenic edema phase (Simard et al., 2007; Stockum et al., 2007). , 2016; Clément et al., 2020). Cytotoxic edema occurs within minutes after ischemic stroke without BBB disruption, which usually results from ATP depletion and is characterized by swelling of astrocytes and neuronal dendrites (Liang et al., 2007; Risher et al., 2011b). . Although cytotoxic edema does not cause tissue edema, the ionic gradient it induces between the vascular compartment and the interstitial fluid (ISF) provides the driving force for subsequent ionic and vasogenic swelling that leads to edema (Mori et al 2004). ; et al., 2007; Stockum et al., 2016). The term ionic edema (interstitial edema) was introduced to describe the form of cerebral edema in the first hours of ischemic stroke, in which barrier damage occurs only 4-6 hours after the onset of ischemia (Gotoh et al. et al., 1985; Young et al., 1985). A, 1987; Hatashita and Hoff, 1990; Schielke et al., 1991; Simard et al., 2007). Ionic edema is followed by disruption of the BBB: vasogenic edema is characterized by leakage of water and plasma proteins such as albumin and IgG into the interstitial space of the brain (Stokum et al.,

What Is Swelling Of The Brain Called

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