What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms – If I were completely new to theoretical cosmology, I might be skeptical of a lot of the “dark” stuff I hear about. “The black thing?” “Dark energy?” Come here; You must be joking! You call me 95% of the world.

(Yes, smart guy, it’s unfair to put the big bang before inflation, and neither does this graph.)

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

We start with a hot, dense, almost (but not quite) unified universe that is expanding and appears to be doing the following (among others):

The Beginning To The End Of The Universe: A Cold, Lonely Death

This means that by looking at temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (above), we can tell whether and how much of our universe contains normal matter, dark matter, or both. In fact, here’s an online calculator that tells you how much normal matter, dark matter, and dark energy you want, and gives you a spectrum of CMB fluctuations. (Try it if you want!) Here are observations that would match:

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

You want a mixture of about 20-25% dark matter, about 4-5% normal matter, and the rest (100% of the total) being dark energy.

However, this is not the only large amount of evidence that we can check in this way. There are also large-scale structures that we find in the universe!

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

Dark Matter Machine (pet Simulator X)

And what we can do with this map is ask, if I look at a certain distance from a galaxy, what is the probability that I will find another galaxy? The result is called the matter power spectrum of the universe and looks like this.

Here’s the thing: If the universe was just full of normal matter (rather than dark matter), the spectrum wouldn’t look so smooth! It would have some regions where the spectrum has dropped to zero, which corresponds to the extent to which normal matter was “thrown out” by radiation from the early universe.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

However, dark matter is not powered by radiation, so if the power spectrum does not have these properties, the universe does.

Electric Dark Matter:

But—and here’s the most compelling part—if you design your universe to be about 70-75% dark energy, 20-25% dark matter, and about 4-5% normal matter, you’ll get consistent predictions.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

And remember I needed to do that? General Relativity + Big Bang. I figured out everything else from physics: I calculated my predictions and compared their data. And this is how we know dark matter exists! You want a universe without dark matter, and at the very least you have to rule out general relativity.

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What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

Dark Matter And Dark Energy: The Mystery Explained (infographic)

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What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

“Procrastination is the deadliest form of denial.” -C. Northcote Parkinson Every massless particle and wave travels at the speed of light as it travels to zero. At a distance of 130 million light-years, gravitational waves are coming, produced by the merging of gamma rays and neutron stars, directed together.

Massive New Physics Project Could Finally Find Dark Matter

“What can we expect to solve the many puzzles that still exist about the origin and composition of cosmic rays?” -Victor Francis Hayes It is often said that the progressive “Eureka!” in physics. Not found, but more “funny”, but the truth is sometimes strange. …

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

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“Dark matter is interesting. Basically, the universe is harder than it should be. There are a lot of things that can’t be explained.” -Talulah Riley The most surprising fact about the universe is that 95% of its energy, in the form of dark matter and dark energy, is completely… long after physicists discovered it at the Large Hadron Collider at the Cern Laboratory. Higgs Boson, CERN Director General Rolf Heuer was asked: “What’s next?” He named one of the main priorities – the discovery of dark matter.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

Dark Matter Vs Dark Energy

There is five times more dark matter than normal. It appears to exist in clumps around the universe, forming a sort of scaffolding upon which visible matter coalesces into galaxies. The nature of dark matter is unknown, but physicists believe it consists of particles similar to visible matter.

Dark matter appears periodically in the media, often when an experiment has observed a possible sign of it. But we are still waiting for the moment when the Nobel Prize is awarded, when the scientists know that they have received it.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

Here are four facts to help you learn about the most exciting topics in particle physics:

Microscopic Black Holes Could Be Flying Through Space Like Bullets

Currently, many experiments are looking for dark matter. But scientists actually discovered its existence decades ago.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

In the 1930s, astrophysicist Fritz Zwick observed the orbits of the group of galaxies that make up the Coma Cluster, consisting of more than 1,000 galaxies located more than 300 million light-years from Earth. He calculated the mass of these galaxies based on the light they emit. He was surprised to learn that if this hypothesis is correct, the galaxies should be flying away from each other at the speed they are moving. In fact, the cluster needed at least 400 times more mass than he calculated to sustain itself. Something mysterious seemed to be pressing a finger on the scales; Apparently, invisible “dark” matter was adding mass to galaxies.

The idea of ​​dark matter was ignored until the 1970s, when astronomer Vera Rubin saw something that gave her the same idea. He studied the motion of stars around the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy. He hypothesized that stars at the edge of the galaxy would move more slowly than at its axis, because the brightest stars would feel the greatest gravitational pull, and the stars would cluster in the center. However, he found that the stars on the outskirts of the galaxy move as fast as in the center. He thought it would make sense if the disk of visible stars was surrounded by an even larger halo made up of something he couldn’t see: some kind of dark matter.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

What’s At The Center Of The Milky Way?

Other astronomical observations confirmed that something strange is happening in the space of galaxies and light propagation. It is possible that our confusion stems from a misunderstanding of gravity, an idea supported by Rubin himself. But if it’s true that dark matter exists, we’ve already seen its effects.

Many experiments are looking for dark matter, and some of it may already be found. The problem is that no experiment has been able to confirm this claim with enough certainty to convince the wider scientific community, either because of the data or because of an inability to rule out alternative possible explanations. And neither of the two claims was convincing enough for the researchers to declare both results confirmed.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

In 1998 Scientists at the DAMA experiment, a dark matter detector buried in Italy’s Gran Sasso mountains, have noticed a promising pattern in their data. The rate at which the experiment detected possible effects of dark matter particles fluctuated throughout the year, peaking in June and falling to a low in December.

Antimatter Particles Could Cross The Galaxy Without Being Destroyed

This is exactly what the DAMA researchers were looking for. If our galaxy is surrounded by a halo of dark matter, the Earth is constantly rotating in this halo as it orbits the Sun, while the Sun is constantly rotating in dark matter around the center of the galaxy. The Earth rotates in the direction of the Sun for half a year. In the second half, it moves in the opposite direction. When the Earth and the Sun move together, their combined speed in the dark matter halo is greater than the speed of the Earth when it and the Sun are in sync. The DAMA results seem to indicate that Earth did indeed pass through a dark matter halo.

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

However, there are some drawbacks; The particles seen by the DAMA detector may not be dark matter, the Earth and the Sun are constantly moving. Or something else may change in the near future. The DAMA experiment, now called DAMA/LIBRA, continues its annual modulation, but the results are not conclusive enough for many scientists to consider it a discovery of dark matter.

It will be difficult for anyone

What Is Dark Matter In Simple Terms

Computer Simulation Of A Lyman Alpha Blob

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