What Is Dark Matter And Dark Energy – Dark Energy Research scientists announced today the results that have been in preparation for 5 years. The researchers used the world’s most comprehensive census of dwarf galaxies around our Milky Way galaxy to investigate the nature of dark matter, the invisible form that dominates the universe. These new dimensions reveal dark things that can and cannot be done.
In particular, the new results limit the minimum mass of dark matter particles, as well as the strong interaction between dark matter and normal matter.
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According to these new results, the mass of dark matter must be greater than a zeptoelectronvolt, i.e. 10
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Electronics. This is one trillionth of a trillionth of an electron’s mass. This study also shows that the interaction between dark matter and normal matter must be 1,000 times weaker than the weak nuclear force. Among known forces, strength is the only weakness.
It shows the results of two numerical simulations that predict the distribution of dark matter around a galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. The left panel suggests that dark matter particles moved quickly in the early universe (hot dark matter), while the right panel suggests that dark matter particles moved slowly (cold dark matter). The dark matter temperature model predicts that there are fewer small clumps of dark matter around our galaxy, and therefore fewer satellite galaxies containing these small clumps of dark matter. By measuring the number of galaxies, scientists can distinguish between these patterns of dark matter. Image: Bullock and Boylan-Kolchin (2017); Modeling by W. Robles, T. Kelly and B. Bozek in collaboration with Bullock and Boylan-Kolchin.
These new measurements used data from the Dark Energy Survey, a planetary survey designed to study dark energy, the mysterious force driving the universe’s rapid expansion. On the contrary, dark matter is very attractive, it prevents the expansion of the Universe and astronomical systems such as galaxies. The smallest “park” galaxies can contain hundreds and thousands of times more dark matter than ordinary matter. Over the past five years, the Dark Energy Survey and other studies have more than doubled the known population of these small galaxies. Currently, their total number exceeds 50.
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“Dark energy research adds a new test to the standard planetary paradigm and places limits on other dark matter models,” said Rich Krohn, a scientist at the University of Chicago and the Fermilab Center, spokesman for dark energy research. “This is a great example of how observations of the largest universe can inform particle physics experiments studying the smallest.”
Dark matter makes up 85% of the matter in the universe, but it has yet to be detected directly in the laboratory. The influence of dark matter is most evident in the motion of stars in galaxies, the distribution of galaxies in the universe, and the abundance of light elements. The strong astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter has inspired a number of experimental studies here on Earth, using instruments ranging from detectors buried deep underground to the earth’s surface, including energetic particle annihilators.
“Complex galaxies are one of the most important tools for studying dark matter because they focus on many of its key properties at once,” said lead author Ethan Nadler, a graduate student at Stanford University and SLAC.
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By combining the observed population of dwarf galaxies with advanced planetary models of the distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way galaxy, scientists have been able to predict what dark matter conditions will be like for many smaller galaxies. Small galaxies form in regions of the early universe with above-average dark matter densities. Physical processes that flatten these high-density regions (if dark matter moves too fast or gains energy from interacting with normal matter) or prevent density fluctuations from scattering to form galaxies (if there are quantum interference effects) reduce the number of galaxies to be detected. . for the study of dark energy.
“It’s exciting to see how the dark matter problem is being explored from so many experimental perspectives,” said Alex Drlica-Wagner, a scientist at Fermilab and the University of Chicago, a research fellow at Dark Energy Research and one of the paper’s lead authors. “This is an important dimension for DES, and I really hope that future planetary exploration will help us understand what darkness is.”
Dark Energy Research is a collaboration of over 300 scientists from 25 institutions in six countries. For more information about the study, visit the study’s website.
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Funding for DES projects was provided by the US Department of Energy, the US National Science Foundation, the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, the UK Council of Technology and Engineering, the Higher Education Funding Council of England, the National Centre. for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Finance and Projects Authority of Brazil, the Carlos Chagas Filho Research Support Fund of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Ministry of Science and Technology, German Research Foundation and collaborating institutions in the field of dark energy research.
Fermilab is supported by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The Department of Science is the largest funder of fundamental research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to solve today’s most pressing problems. For more information, visit science.energy.gov Researchers have found evidence for the existence of small clumps of dark matter using a new energy-density method to calculate the expansion rate of the universe.
The team will publish two papers, one based on evidence for dark matter and another based on new Hubble data showing the expansion rate of the universe.
What Is Dark Matter & Dark Energy
Simulations of the evolution of the universe based only on gravity don’t match what scientists see, said Anna Nirenberg, the project’s principal investigator and a scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
However, if researchers assume that about 85% of the total mass of the universe consists of non-interacting particles, then, according to Nirenberg, the models will directly change the universe as we see it today.
“We know how much (dark matter) we think we must have a limit on how much it interacts with the Moon, but beyond that we know little about it,” Nirenberg said. “So this is one of the most important questions in modern physics.”
What Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy?
The group’s observations show the existence of an invisible mass and the impossibility of creating the universe, said Stanford University doctoral student Simon Birrer.
According to Daniel Gilman, a UCLA graduate student in physics and astronomy and lead author on the dark matter paper, dark matter dominates the mass of the universe.
Gilman said the particles assemble into large dark matter structures called halos. Scientists look at these structures in an attempt to determine the nature of dark matter.
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Unfortunately, it’s difficult to study because it doesn’t interact with any forces other than gravity, Gilman said. Therefore, the ability to study darkness is the best way to learn.
“Gravity is the only channel for studying dark matter, and cosmic fusion, the reflection of light by magnetic fields, is a direct way to find these halos and distributions of dark matter.” Gilman said.
Gilman suggested that the distribution and size of these halos depend on the nature of the dark matter particles. In fact, many giant dark matter horns contain galaxies and stars, so the size of a galaxy is easier to estimate from the size of the galaxy.
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“If you can find smaller objects, if you start looking for halos smaller and smaller, you can learn more about what (dark) matter is like,” he said. Gilman.
Gilman says that when you get to low-mass structures, the halos containing stars are no longer visible, and narrow lensing becomes the only way to see them.
Anowar Shajib, a graduate student in astronomy and astrophysics at UCLA and co-author of the Hubble paper, says the tilt of the moon occurs when the moon tilts as it moves along the mass due to the gravitational pull of the mass.
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Gravitational focusing has also been used to measure the Hubble constant independently, moving away from two previously conflicting results.
The Hubble constant is a number that can be used to determine the expansion rate of the universe.
Scientists can use the focusing feature to measure distance by observing the light emitted by a galaxy directly behind another galaxy, Shajib said. According to Shajib, the light from the background galaxy hits at an angle, bends and reaches us, so we can see multiple images of the same galaxy.
Pdf) The Nature Of Dark Matter And Of Dark Energy
“For example, something is hard to see in the mirror, but this is because of the light.
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