What Are The Raw Materials They Use – How is the domestic card collected? How are materials derived from different wastes and coming directly from industry defined? When is it considered waste and when is it secondary raw material? And, to top it all off, how is waste managed in the paper industry? Here is a survey on secondary raw materials and waste in the paper sector comparing the experiences of Italy, France and Spain.
What is junk and what isn’t? How does waste collection work, which is the most strategic means of supplying raw materials for the paper industry? Waste management regulations are not the same in all European countries, while moving in the same direction. Therefore, we wanted to compare the standards by interviewing their key references in Italy, Spain and France: Massimo Medogno, Esocarta Director for the Italian Paper Industry, David Barrio, Espal for the Spanish Paper Industry Recycle Director and Noel Mangin, General Representative. to Procelpique for the French paper industry.
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We are coming from Italy. Here the paper is collected separately from other materials: “which is very important for the paper industry because it means, at least in theory, starting from the best conditions” says Massimo Medogno, the Italian law also results That provides for simplification. The methods of selection and treatment of paper collections have strengthened this method of collection”.
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What will come of this collection? “Garbage, stuff that always has soil in it,” says Medogno. “Italian regulations establish that materials defined as waste can be considered as secondary raw materials – then not waste – if they meet the quality standards set by law.” So it is clear that what is collected is garbage; When it goes through the selection and treatment – actually on the recovery platform – the paper from the waste becomes a secondary raw material: “It’s a big system.
, this means that under certain conditions the material is no longer wasted. Even the paper that comes from industrial circuits is still waste, it should not be considered waste – a secondary raw material – it must be treated in a recycling platform that must be authorized according to the applicable regulations, knowing that That it should be. Recycled in the paper industry.
David Barrio says that even in Spain, “household papers are still collected separately from other items”. “We have blue bins on the streets and they receive all paper products (graphics and packaging) except beverage containers.”
However, if in Italy the platform, in addition to the important logistic function, is used to convert waste into secondary raw materials, in Spain this conversion role is assigned to the pulper: “Paper is always wasted until it is pulped be and reused. In recycled pulp: Pulp is considered the last point of recycling”, Barrio explains.
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France proposed another multi-material model, as Noel Mangin explained: “In France, the main system of domestic waste collection is combined for recycling but with a separate and independent flow for glass. The main part of the collection system is a door. All used paper and cardboard products are therefore subject to the Basel Convention (Green List) and are distributed in Europe without any restrictions.
Now let’s talk about the waste or chips from the paper industry: are they waste or by-products? Are they sent directly to the paper mill or is there an intermediary? In Italy, Massimo Medugno explains, “Shavings – which represent 10-15% of the collection – are an exception to the rule: they are not regulated by waste law because they have a safe use because they are used by industry Primary processing. , and they represent the only case in which the material from the processing industry returns directly to the paper mill. So they are not produced and wasted, and they have no intermediaries, unless there is a logistical need. In this regard, Italy transposes the full Community law precisely: in fact, when the Community policy defines the “end of waste”, the reference must be changed.
In Spain, paper mill chips are considered waste: “All paper that comes directly from the industry (chips and shavings) is legally considered waste of another quality by EN643. There are no specific rules for pre-consumption. Consumers. The terms of consideration of waste”, Barrio explains, also explaining that: “Today we are discussing the plan of by-products in Spain, but the problem Very serious. And the consequences are uncertain. opur Env idea. The Ministry will have a special law for by-products for certain waste materials, but it will not be easy.
In France there is a law for by-products according to the European waste directive and it is the responsibility of the manufacturers to qualify their products and finally propose to the public authorities that this qualification is certified. “Basically, we have three different channels”, explains Noel Mangin: the flow of sand and cuttings that can be described as by-products (for the packaging sector, these products are exchanged directly between producers and converters – provided , while there is usually an intermediate for graphics pens). ); Industrial and commercial used packaging flows handled and converted by paper merchants and/or waste operators; The stream of used municipal paper and cardboard products is collected and sorted by waste companies under the responsibility of the municipality, which is legally responsible for it.
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Now we want to know, in different countries, if the industrial system works through intermediaries, if it goes directly to the companies or if the companies participate in elections.
In Spain, some shavings and cuttings go through middlemen and some go directly to paper mills with reverse logistics.
In France, to be precise, there are two EPR systems (Eco Amblage for household packaging and Eco Folio for graphic products): these two eco organizations are registered (approved) by the public authority and have agreements with the municipalities. Signing These systems are strictly regulated with a clear role for each partner, a strict follow-up and control, a good identification of these products, referring to a common standard defined in the contract, says Noel Mangin: “Many contracts are signed directly D. Municipalities and paper mills to ensure recovery: In this channel, the role of traders is relatively weak, different partners in the chain play an active role to physically change.
On the other hand, in Italy, the arbitration system is very important, widespread and implemented by companies. Over the years we have seen a lot of interest from some companies that wanted to cover the pre-use handling stage in the paper industry; Apparently because controlling the supply of raw materials has become a strategic issue for companies. Some paper mills are actually looking to integrate upstream, perhaps buying recycling platforms. “Certainly”, confirmed Madogno, there is an increasing focus on the issue of supply because since Italy became an exporter of used paper, the work of intermediaries has become more understood: if a company is more connected to industrial policy. In the region, its policy will be a more stable one and an increase in programming and industrial vision, while there is a strong export, the middleman tries to mediate between the domestic market and exports. and the purpose of the industry
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That’s why some companies take a closer look at the waste management group before using it in paper mills. But this is different from institutional licenses, “a very strict licensing system, as strict as it should be, it is difficult to treat all losses equally”.
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In Spain, “the collection rate was 74% in 2012, and we think it will increase even more and we estimate that one million tons of extra paper will be saved from landfills and into the recycling cycle. be introduced again.” Barrio says.
In France, the world recycling rate is 70%, divided into: recycling rate for packaging (89%), for household packaging (67%), for graphics cards (51%).
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In Italy, the collection rate is around 54-55%, with a wide margin for growth, the collection per person is around 50 kg, while nine out of ten packaging is recycled: “Collection capacity Exceeds the capacity to use, then exports.The result is, because of the situation where the collection exceeds the use.
“If some companies can improve energy efficiency and have energy recovery systems for their waste, the situation may change, and the use of paper for pasta in Italy may also increase,” says Madogno. Our thinking is directed towards the fact that recycled materials can become strategic resources in Italy and the European Union.
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