What Are The Raw Materials Of Paper – How do you collect household paper? How do you identify materials from separate waste collection and direct production? When is it waste and when is it secondary raw material? And how is waste managed in the paper industry? Here is a survey of secondary raw materials and waste in the paper industry, comparing the experiences of Italy, France and Spain.
What is waste and what is not? How does waste collection work, one of the most strategic raw materials for the paper industry? The waste management regulations are not the same in all European countries, but move in the same direction. For this reason, we wanted to compare the standards used in Italy, Spain and France with the main references: Massimo Madonio, director of Asocrata for the Italian paper industry, David Barrio, recycling director of Aspapel for the Spanish paper industry, and Noel Mengin, head. Representative of the French paper industry Procellpac for the summer
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Let’s start in Italy here, the paper is collected separately from other materials: “This is very important for the paper industry, because it means starting from the best location, at least in theory,” says Massimo Medugno, also a result of the Italian law. Selection and handling of paper collections and this improved collection methods
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What will come out of this collection? “The rest, things that still have dirt in them,” says Madunio, “Italian regulations state that material defined as waste can be considered secondary raw material, if it meets the quality standards established by law.” Therefore, it is clear that what is collected is destroyed; When it undergoes selection and treatment – mainly at the restoration site – the paper waste becomes a secondary raw material: “This is a forward process.
, that is, under certain conditions a material is no longer destroyed Papers are also waste from industrial plans, then what is considered not waste – secondary raw materials – must be processed in recovery platforms, which must be permitted in accordance with the applicable regulations. Recycling in the paper industry
Even in Spain, “household paper is always collected separately from other materials,” says David Berrio. We have blue bins on the road that take all paper products (graphics and packaging) except drink cartons.
However, if in Italy a platform is used, which has an important logistical role, to turn waste into secondary raw materials, in Spain this transformative role is given to coconut: “Paper is always waste until it is presented to the public. And recycle recycled pulp: pulp pulp is considered the last point of recycling,” explains Barrio .
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France offers another multi-material model, as Noel Mangin explains: “France has a system for collecting recyclable domestic waste, but with a separate and independent flow of glass. The main part of the collection system is door-to-door, and secondly, a rural and semi-rural delivery system. We are waiting for a European decision Regarding the waste status, but all paper and cardboard products in use today are in waste status, therefore, paper and cardboard waste is included in the Basil Convention (green list) and is distributed without restrictions in Europe.
Now let’s talk about scrap or scrap from the paper industry: is it waste or a by-product? Do you ship directly to the paper mill or do they have intermediaries? In Italy, explains Massimo Madonio, “scrap – collection of 10-15% – are exceptions to the rules: they are not regulated by the waste laws, because they have a reliable function, because they are used by the industry without previous modification and they are recycled. This represents the only time from the industry that the materials obtained go directly back to the paper mill. Therefore they are by-products and not waste, and there are no intermediaries if there is no essential need. In this context, Italy passed all the Community legislation: in fact, the context changes when the Community establishes a “no waste” policy.
In Spain, scrap from paper mills is considered waste: “All paper (scrap and scrap) directly from the industry is considered waste by law, as are other grades according to the EN643 standard. Barrio points out that there are no specific waste management rules for a post-consumer article. He explains that “we are currently discussing in the by-products program in Spain, but the issue is very complex. And the result is uncertain. OPUR’s idea is that the Ministry of the Environment should have a specific law for waste disposal, but it is not easy.”
France has by-product regulations under the European Waste Directive and requires manufacturers to qualify their products and ultimately the responsible public authority to verify this qualification. He “Actually we have three different channels”, explains Noel Mangin: the flow of trimmings and cuttings suitable as by-products (for the packaging sector these products are exchanged directly between manufacturers and converters, while graphic cutting usually has an intermediary); industrial and commercial. The packaging flow is processed and traded by waste paper dealers and/or waste handlers; the flow of municipal used paper and cardboard products is collected and sorted by waste companies under the responsibility of the municipalities legally responsible for it.
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Now we want to understand whether the network system in different countries works through intermediaries, does it go directly to the company or do the companies participate in the selection platform?
In Spain, some scrap and trimmings go through middlemen, and some go directly to paper mills through reverse logistics.
In France, in particular, there are two EPIR systems (Eco-Emblese for consumer packaging and Ecofolio for graphic products): both are registered (certified) by organic ecological government authorities and have contracts with municipalities. These systems are well organized, with a clear role for each partner, strict supervision and control, a common standard defined in the contract and good identification of the products, says Noel Mangin. Between the municipality and the paper mill: the role of merchants in this channel is relatively weak, the various partners in the chain play an active role in physical change.
In Italy, instead, the method of mediation by companies is very important, common and practiced over the years we have seen interest from some companies that want to include a pre-use control stage in the paper industry; Controlling the supply of raw materials has become a strategic issue for companies. Some paper mills are actually buying recovery platforms and trying to integrate upstream. More to the industrial policy of the region, the stronger the stability in its policy,” Maddogno said. , will have programming and industry perspectives and when there is a strong export, intermediaries try to negotiate between the domestic market and exports and the industry has a goal
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, so some companies carefully consider waste management teams before using it in their paper mills. But opposed to this institutional authorization is “a very strict licensing system, if necessary, so strict that all waste is treated equally”.
So far we have discussed environmental regulation and waste collection, but what is the rate of paper collection for recycling? Can it get any bigger? Let’s get some information
“In Spain, the collection rate was 74% in 2012, and we think it can increase even more, and we believe that an additional million tons of paper can be saved from waste and put into the recycling cycle,” says Barrio.
In France, the global recycling rate is 70%, divided into: packaging (89%), household packaging (67%), graphic paper (51%).
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In Italy, the collection rate is about 54-55%, in a wide spread the collection per capita is about 50 kg, and nine out of ten packaging is recycled: “The collection capacity is greater than the consumption capacity, and then export is the result. Because of this situation, the collection is more than the consumption. She is more.’
“If some companies could improve their energy efficiency and set up energy recovery for their waste, maybe the situation could change and increase paper consumption in Italy as well,” says Madiano. Our thinking is focused on turning recycled materials into a strategic resource both in Italy and the European Union.
, Sewage Treatment
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