What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses?

What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses? – An oil refinery or oil refinery is an industrial process plant where petroleum (crude oil) is converted into useful products such as gasoline (gasoline), diesel fuel, asphalt base, fuel oil, heating oil, kerosene, gas oil, and petroleum liquids. Purified. Naphtha

Petrochemical feedstocks such as ethyl and propyl can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the use of refined crude oil products such as naphtha.

What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses?

What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses?

Crude oil feedstock is usually processed in an oil production facility. There is typically an oil storage facility at or near the refinery to store incoming crude oil feed as well as liquid bulk products. In 2020, the total capacity of the world’s crude oil refineries was about 101.2 million barrels per day.

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Refineries are typically large industrial complexes with large, extensive pipelines that carry liquid streams between large chemical processing units such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use a number of technologies and can be considered a type of chemical plant. As of December 2008, the world’s largest oil refinery is the Jamnagar refinery owned by Reliance Industries, located in Gujarat, India, with a refining capacity of 1.24 million barrels (197,000 m3).

). Some modern refineries process 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (120,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) of crude oil per day.

As early as the first century, the Chinese were refining crude oil for use as an energy source.

Between 512 and 518, at the end of the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Chinese geographer, writer and politician Li Daoyuan introduced the process of refining oil into various lubricants in his famous work Commentary on the Water Classic.

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Crude oil was often distilled by Arab chemists, Arab textbooks such as Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (

The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar obtained from the oil that became available from the region’s natural resources. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area surrounding today’s Baku, in Azerbaijan. These areas were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan Ali al-Masud in the 10th century and Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the production of wells filled with hundreds of pottery.

Arab and Persian chemists also distilled the crude oil to make flammable products for military use. Distillation became available in Western Europe in the 12th century via Islamic Spain.

What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses?

In the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), a workshop called the “Fire Oil Workshop” was established in the city of Kaifag to produce refined oil for the Song army as weapons. Soldiers filled iron barrels with refined oil and fired the bombs at the troops, setting them on fire, effectively the world’s first “firebomb.” The workshop was one of the world’s first oil refineries, employing thousands of people to make weapons fueled by Chinese oil.

What Are The Product Obtained On Refining Petroleum Formed

Before the 19th century, oil was known and widely used in Babylon, Egypt, China, the Philippines, Rome, and Azerbaijan. However, the modern history of the petroleum industry begins in 1846, when Abraham Gessner of Nova Scotia, Canada developed a process for making kerosene from coal. Soon after, in 1854, Ignacy Lukasiewicz began producing kerosene from hand-dug oil wells near Krosno, Poland.

The world’s first industrial oil refinery was built in 1856 in Ploeti, Romania, taking advantage of Romania’s abundant oil.

The first oil well in North America was drilled in 1858 by James Miller Williams in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada.

In the United States, the oil industry began in 1859 when Edwin Drake struck oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania.

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The industry grew gradually in the 19th century, mainly producing kerosene for oil lamps. At the beginning of the 20th century, the introduction of the internal combustion engine and its use in automobiles created a market for gasoline that fueled the rapid growth of the petroleum industry. Early oil discoveries, such as those in Ontario and Pennsylvania, were soon overtaken by large oil “booms” in Oklahoma, Texas, and California.

Polish pharmacist and investor Ignacy Lukasiewicz established an oil refinery in 1854 in Jaslo, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Poland). The first large factory was opened in 1856-1857 in Ploesti, Romania.

After Nazi Germany took over, the Plowet refineries were bombed by the Allies during the World War II oil campaign in Operation Tidal Wave. Another close contender for the title of world’s oldest oil refinery is Salzburg in Lower Saxony, Germany. The Salzburg factory was opened in 1860.

What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses?

At one time, the Ras Tanura refinery in Saudi Arabia, owned by Saudi Aramco, was claimed to be the largest oil refinery in the world. For most of the 20th century, the largest factory was the Abadan factory in Iran. This factory was heavily damaged during the Iran-Iraq war. As of 25 December 2008, the world’s largest refinery complex is the Jamnagar refinery complex, which consists of two parallel refineries operated by Reliance Industries Limited in Jamnagar, India, with a combined production capacity of 1,240,000 barrels per day (197,000 m3).

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Before World War II, in the early 1940s, most oil refineries in the United States consisted of crude oil distillation units only (often referred to as crude atmospheric distillation units). Some refineries had vacuum distillation units as well as thermal crackers such as viscosity breakers (viscosity breakers, units to reduce oil viscosity). Many of the other reform processes discussed below took place during the war or in the post-war years. They became commercially available within 5-10 years after the war and the world oil industry experienced rapid growth. Driving the growth in technology and the increase in the number and size of refineries around the world was the growing demand for motor gasoline and jet fuel.

Construction of new refineries in the United States stopped around the 1980s for a variety of complex economic and political reasons. However, many refineries in the United States have upgraded multiple units and/or built additional units. : Increase your crude oil refining capacity, increase the octane number of your gasoline, reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel and home heating fuel to meet environmental regulations, and meet environmental air pollution requirements and water pollution.

In 2017, the oil refining market size exceeded US$ 6 trillion in 2017 and is expected to reach 100 million barrels per day (MBPD) by 2024.

The oil refining market is showing remarkable growth due to rapid industrialization and economic transformation. Demographic changes, population growth and improving living standards in developing countries are some of the factors that are positively impacting the industry’s outlook.

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In the 19th century, US refineries primarily processed crude oil to recover kerosene. There was no market for other volatile fractions, including gasoline, which was considered waste and was often dumped directly into the nearest river. The invention of the automobile shifted demand to gasoline and diesel, which remain the primary refined products today.

Today, national and state laws require refineries to meet strict standards for clean air and water. In fact, it is so difficult and expensive for oil companies in the US to get permits to build modern refineries that no new refineries were built in the US from 1976 to 2014 (although a few were expanded), when the small one in North Dakota was in the Dakotas. Prairie Factory Online.

More than half of the existing refineries in 1981 are now closed due to low utilization rates and rapid mergers.

What Are The Products Obtained On Refining Petroleum Write Their Main Uses?

As a result of these closures, total US refinery capacity declined between 1981 and 1995, although operating capacity remained fairly constant at approximately 15,000,000 barrels per day (2,400,000 m3) during this time.

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An increase in the size of facilities and improvements in efficiency replaced the lost physical capacity of the industry. In 1982 (the earliest data available), the United States operated 301 refineries with a combined capacity of 17.9 million barrels (2,850,000 m).

Crude oil per calendar day). As of 2010, there were 149 refineries operating in the US with a combined capacity of 17.6 million barrels (2,800,000 m).

By 2014, the number of refineries had decreased to 140, but total capacity had increased to 18.02 million barrels (2,865,000 m3).

) per calendar day. In fact, to reduce operating costs and depreciation, processing is carried out at fewer facilities, but at a higher capacity.

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From 2009 to 2010, when the flow of ideas in the oil business decreased and the profitability of oil refineries decreased, due to low demand for the product and high supply before the economic downturn, oil companies closed the least profitable refineries. or started selling. .

Crude or unrefined crude oil is generally not useful in industrial applications, although “light, sweet” (low-viscosity, low-sulfur) crude oil is used as direct combustion fuel to generate steam for ship propulsion. lighter

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