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What Are The Major Constituents Of Crude Petroleum
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Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
Fingerprint Analysis Reveals Sources Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons In Soils Of Different Geographical Oilfields Of China And Its Ecological Assessment
S) is considered one of the biggest air pollutants in the world today. In addition, high levels of sulfur in petroleum distillates can promote the destruction of catalysts by poisoning fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) when hydrocracking heavy distillates in the light. The presence of high sulfur compounds in the production stream can lead to the destruction of pipes and equipment and equipment, damage the pipes and cause the release of sulfur compounds into the air, which is undesirable for people and in the environment. In some cases, large amounts of SO
Released into the atmosphere when petroleum distillates contain large amounts of sulfur-containing compounds that are used as fuel and heat. In this article, a brief overview of the various desulfurization methods used to remove sulfur from petroleum distillates is given. In particular, the study focuses on biodesulfurization technology. In addition, this article aims to present the current status of biodesulfurization (BDS). It examines the technology development process in detail to highlight strengths and weaknesses that may pave the way for future opportunities. Appropriate methods for remediating sulfur-contaminated sites are also discussed. Finally, predictions about future directions or opportunities that should be explored are offered as a way to challenge the thinking of researchers in this field.
Energy production is one of the most important issues today. Coal as a fossil fuel plays an important role in the energy structure. Burning high-sulfur coal causes the release of sulfur oxides that cause serious environmental problems, such as acid rain and severe air pollution . A major problem in refineries today is the purification of organic sulfur from crude oil [2, 3]. However, Pyrite has served as a model for inorganically bound sulfur compounds in desulfurization investigations. It is the main inorganic sulfur compound in high sulfur coal . The share of global energy from fossil fuels still exceeds 82%, despite the reduction in the share of energy obtained from fossil fuels . Crude oil occurs naturally in the ground and is primarily used as a transportation fuel, such as diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. The quality of crude oil is greatly influenced by two factors which are; American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity and sulfur content and sulfur content . Sulfur compounds exist in various forms that can be classified into four groups: disulfides, mercaptans, thiophenes (THs), and sulfides . There are varying amounts of sulfur compounds in natural gas . Sulfur compounds are unnecessary in refining because they tend to cause inactivation during crude oil processing. They are potentially toxic and can cause corrosion of pumping equipment and pipes [6, 8, 9]. In addition, they are a source of air pollution in the community . Sulfur dioxide emissions are caused by natural sulfur compounds left in the fuel, which cause sulfur oxide gas to be released. The reaction of this water with the air forms sulfate and acid water which leads to the destruction of the building. It also acidifies the soil and ultimately causes the destruction of the forest and therefore the ecosystem . Sulfur emissions cause associated health problems, such as heart disease, asthma, and respiratory disease. In addition, the presence of sulfur compounds in liquid fuel affects the motor. The level of sulfur in motor oil is responsible for the lack of catalytic converters [6, 11].
There are various ways to reduce the sulfur content of today’s motor fuels. These methods have been tested with varying degrees of success. The most commonly used method is hydrodesulfurization (HDS) . HDS successfully removes sulfur-containing aromatic compounds such as sulfones, thiolates, thiols and sulfoxides. Despite the extreme conditions (high temperature and pressure) present in HDS, some sulfur-containing compounds are still present, leading to a decrease in oil quality . Therefore, the HDS method for deep desulfurization is expensive. In addition, some compounds containing heterocyclic sulfur, such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and those with alkyl substituents, especially 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4, 6-DMDBT) , are resistant to HDS. Dimethyldibenzothiophene (DMDBT), the most reactive of the sulfur compounds also inhibits HDS from petroleum distillates .
What Is Crude Oil?
Other desulfurization methods that can produce very clean oil are adsorptive desulfurization (AD), oxidation-extraction desulfurization (OEDS), desulfurization by oxidation (DO), and biodesulfurization (BDS). Desulfurization by adsorption is a process in which an active adsorbent with a large surface area removes sulfur compounds. Oxidative desulfurization is a chemical reaction that involves the use of oxidizing agents such as; H
, etc. to oxidize sulfur-containing compounds to sulfones. Because of the high polarity of sulfone compounds, they are easily extracted from oil. BDS has gotten a lot of attention because of the green reform of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the main obstacle to its use is the slowness of the extraction process. Recently, there are environmental laws that set strict limits for sulfur content in motor fuel. It is currently the strongest driver of sulfur removal from motor fuels. To ensure the availability of cheap energy by removing sulfur from low-quality raw materials, new desulfurization methods are needed. In this article, various desulfurization methods are investigated to reduce sulfur-containing compounds in transportation fuels and the gaps in these methods are analyzed.
Sulfur is toxic to humans, harmful to the environment, and damaging to infrastructure. The presence of high sulfur compounds in the process stream can cause many damages, which are hazardous to health. This section describes and discusses the effects of sulfur on humans and the environment.
Petroleum-based fuels, such as diesel and gasoline, are used by internal combustion engines to power many vehicles. Release of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO
Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalyst Regeneration Intensification Technologies
) is usually caused by high temperatures in the cylinder due to insufficient oil heat. Other health problems and chronic diseases associated with exposure to these pollutants can lead to early death .
Particulate matter (PM) is the most dangerous vehicle emission. This group of solid and liquid particles, less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter, (PM
) can easily enter the lungs, promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, continuous exposure to PM
Causes a series of chronic diseases in the elderly. These include respiratory disease, exacerbation of existing asthma, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, chronic bronchitis, and cerebrovascular disease . Therefore, the reduction of sulfur-containing compounds from motor fuels is important to the petroleum industry. The International Agency for Research on Cancer confirmed that PM
Gc–ms Analysis Of Crude Oil In Solution: Composition Of Crude Oil…
Is a known carcinogen, which is mainly caused by diesel fuel used in transportation . Exposure to high concentrations of PM
Has been found to be associated with increased hospitalizations related to respiratory tract infections , stroke, non-fatal heart attacks, and other serious complications . Negative reproductive effects, including decreased birth weight and increased infant mortality are also a consequence of PM emissions.
[20, 21]. New research into the impact of black carbon on the climate provides strong evidence that, if diesel emissions can be controlled, it can reduce global warming.
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