What Are The Different Forms Of Leukemia – Leukemia is classified according to the type of white blood cells affected and how quickly the disease progresses:
Based on how quickly it develops or worsens, leukemia is classified as acute (fast-growing) or chronic (slow-growing):
What Are The Different Forms Of Leukemia
According to data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, the most common types of leukemia in the United States are in this order:
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develops rapidly, replacing healthy cells that produce functional lymphocytes with leukemic cells that do not mature properly. Leukemia cells travel through the bloodstream to other organs and tissues where they continue to grow and divide, including the brain, liver, lymph nodes and testicles. The growth, division, and spread of these leukemia cells can cause a variety of possible symptoms, some of which may resemble the flu. They include fatigue, shortness of breath, fever and easy bruising or bleeding.
ALL develops when changes (mutations) in DNA cause the bone marrow to produce too many abnormal lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Lymphocytes are supposed to help fight infection, but those produced in people with ALL may not do this as well as they should. The proliferation of these abnormal cells also crowd out other types of healthy blood cells.
It is not known exactly what causes the mutation that leads to ALL, but certain factors can increase a person’s risk. Risk factors for ALL include:
ALL can be diagnosed with blood tests and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, which includes a bone marrow aspiration and a sample of bone marrow and the removal of a small piece of bone followed by examination of cells under a microscope.
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, is a rapidly growing cancer of the blood and bone marrow.
Like ALL, AML causes the bone marrow to overproduce abnormal white blood cells, crowding out healthy blood cells and impairing the body’s ability to fight infection.
Some symptoms may resemble the flu, such as fever, fatigue, and night sweats. Others include easy bruising or bleeding and weight loss. Blood tests and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are among the tests that can be done to diagnose this cancer.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a typical slow-growing cancer that begins in lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spreads to the blood. It can also spread to lymph nodes and organs such as the liver and spleen. CLL develops when too many abnormal lymphocytes grow, crowding out normal blood cells and making it harder for the body to fight infection.
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According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), about 25 percent of all leukemia cases are CLL, and about one in every 175 people may develop CLL in their lifetime. CLL is like ALL, but chronic rather than acute, meaning it grows more slowly and takes longer to start causing symptoms.
When it causes symptoms, these can include swollen lymph nodes (neck, armpit, abdomen or groin), fatigue, fever, infection, weight loss and more. Various blood tests can be used to diagnose CLL.
CLL may not need to be treated immediately, but instead monitor for any problems and changes, after which the need for treatment can be reassessed. Common treatment options include:
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, begins in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow and then spreads to the blood over time. Eventually, the disease spreads to other parts of the body.
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CML grows slowly, but when it starts to cause symptoms, these can include fatigue, fever, weight loss and an enlarged spleen. About half of CML cases are diagnosed with a blood test before symptoms begin. About 15 percent of leukemias are CML, according to the ACS.
Your multidisciplinary team will work with you to develop an individualized plan to treat your leukemia in a way that fits your individual needs and goals.
Among the different types of leukemia, some are less common than others. Three rare types of leukemia—prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGL), and hairy cell leukemia (HCL)—share some of the same characteristics as lymphocytic leukemia and are sometimes considered subtypes of chronic or acute lymphocytic leukemia ( CLL and ALL ). ). Myelodysplastic syndrome is also a rare leukemia-related condition.
Prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) can develop with or on its own, but usually develops more quickly than normal CLL. It is characterized by the proliferation of immature lymphocytes. If it causes symptoms, it may look like another type of leukemia (flu-like symptoms, easy bruising, unexplained weight loss). Diagnosis may include bone marrow aspiration and biopsy and blood tests. PLL tends to respond well to treatment, and options may be similar to those used to treat CLL. However, recurrence is common.
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Large granular lymphoid leukemia (LGL) is a type of chronic leukemia that causes the body to produce abnormally large lymphocytes. When patients are diagnosed with this condition, symptoms tend to be present and include flu-like symptoms, frequent infections, and unexplained weight loss. People with autoimmune diseases have a higher risk of developing LGL. Diagnosis may include blood tests and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Most patients require treatment immediately after diagnosis, which may include immunosuppressive drugs. Others may delay treatment to see if problems arise. LGL treatment is not standardized and patients may need different options depending on their condition.
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare and progressive subtype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, an estimated 700 people are diagnosed with HCL each year. HCL occurs when the bone marrow produces too many B cells (lymphocytes), a type of white blood cell that fights infection. As the number of leukemia cells increases, fewer healthy white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets are produced. The word “hair” comes from the appearance of the cells it produces. Under the microscope, HCL cells appear to have thin hair-like projections.
The symptoms of HCL may resemble other types of leukemia and may resemble the flu. Bone marrow aspiration, biopsy and blood tests are the main diagnostic tools.
HCL usually does not need to be treated immediately, and patients are monitored for problematic changes that require treatment. When complications occur with HCL, such as low blood cell counts, frequent infections, or swollen lymph nodes, chemotherapy is usually used.
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of closely related diseases in which the bone marrow produces too few red blood cells (which carry oxygen), white blood cells (which fight infection) or platelets (which prevent or stop bleeding). any combination of the three. Different types of myelodysplastic syndromes are diagnosed based on specific changes in blood cells and bone marrow. Cells in the blood and bone marrow (also called myelo) often appear abnormal (or dysplastic), hence the term myelodysplastic syndrome.
According to the ACS, more than 10,000 people are diagnosed with MDS each year. In the past, MDS was commonly referred to as a preleukemic condition (and is still sometimes called preleukemia) because some people with MDS develop acute leukemia as a complication of the disease. However, most patients with MDS never develop acute leukemia.
Traditionally, MDS is reclassified as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with myelodysplastic features when blood or marrow blasts reach or exceed 20 percent. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow characterized by rapid growth and spread. immature white blood cells (WBC), also known as lymphoblasts or leukemia cells.
If left untreated, all these immature cells are released into the bloodstream and begin to cause problems in other parts of the body, such as the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, liver, testicles, and central nervous system.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (cll) Facts & Symptoms
ALL symptoms start to appear when the patient does not have enough healthy cells. Low white blood cells (RBCs) can cause frequent infections and fevers, while low red blood cells (RBCs) can cause fatigue and anemia. A low platelet count (cells that help blood clot) can cause easy bruising and nosebleeds.
The above symptoms are not specific to EVERYONE, so patients should consult a hematologist-oncologist for an accurate diagnosis. A hematologist-oncologist is a doctor with special training in the treatment of blood cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma.
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