Standard Handbook Of Petroleum And Natural Gas Engineering – It should not be confused with liquefied natural gas, or related petroleum gas, or “condensed” in SS natural gas condensate (liquefied natural gases).
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas) is a flammable gas that contains a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases, namely propane, propyl, butyl, isobutane and n-butane.
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LPG is used as a fuel gas in heating appliances, cooking appliances and cars. It is increasingly being used as an aerosol propellant
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The different types of LPG bought and sold include compounds that are mainly propane (C 3 H 8 ), mainly butane (C 4 H 10 ), and common mixtures that include propane and butane. In winter in the northern hemisphere, compounds contain more propane, while in summer it is butane.
There are two types of LPG sold in the United States: commercial propane and HD-5. These specifications are published by the Gas Producers Association (GPA)
C3H8. HD-5 reduces the amount of propylene that can be put in LPG to 5% and is used as an autogas specification. A strong odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can be easily detected. The European international standard is 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiopho (thiophane) or amylmercaptan are also approved flavoring agents,
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Propane is made by refining oil or natural “liquid” and almost always comes from fossil fuels, either produced during oil refining (crude oil) or extracted from oil or gas streams. nature when it comes out of the ground. It was first developed in 1910 by Walter O. Snelling and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It now provides about 3% of the energy used and burns cleanly, it is with very low soot and sulfur emissions. Since it is a gas, it does not pose a risk of contaminating land or water, but it can cause air pollution. LPG has an average calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared to 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium petrol (gasoline).
However, its energy per unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than that of gasoline or fuel oil because its relative weight is lower (about 0.5-0.58 kg/L, compared and 0.71-0 .77 kg / L for petrol). . Since the pressure and vapor pressure of the gas (or its components) change significantly with temperature, this issue must be taken into account whenever the application is related to the protection or monitoring process,
Besides its use as an energy carrier, propane-butane is also a promising product in the chemical industry for the production of olefins such as ethyl, propyl,
Since its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will vaporize rapidly at normal temperatures and pressures and is usually supplied in metal pressure vessels. They are usually filled to 80-85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the existing liquid. The ratio of vaporized gas to liquid gases varies according to composition, pressure and temperature, but is usually around 250:1. The pressure at which LPG becomes a liquid, called the vapor pressure, also varies depending on the composition and temperature. for example, it is about 220 kilopascals (32 psi) for pure butane at 20 °C (68 °F) and about 2,200 kilopascals (320 psi) for pure propane at 55 °C (131 °F). LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, so it will flow through the ground and settle on low surfaces such as floors. There are two main risks in this matter. The first is a potential explosion if the gas/air mixture is within explosive limits and there is an ignition source present. The second is suffocation due to wet gas displacing the air, which causes a decrease in oxygen in the air.
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A full cylinder of gas contains 86% liquid. the free volume will contain vapor at a different pressure and temperature.
LPG has a wide range of applications in many different markets as an efficient fuel carrier in agriculture, leisure, hospitality, industry, construction, shipping and fishing. It can be used as fuel for cooking, central heating and water heating and is a particularly economical and efficient way to heat homes from the grid.
Propane is used for cooking in many countries for economic reasons, motivation or because it is a popular fuel source.
In India, about 8.9 million tonnes of LPG were consumed in the six months between April and September 2016 in the domestic sector, mostly for cooking. The number of domestic connections is 215 million (that is, one connection for every six people) with a circulation of more than 350 million LPG cylinders.
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Most of the demand for LPG is imported. Pipeline gas supply in India is yet to be developed on a large scale. LPG is subsidized by the Indian government for domestic consumers. The rise in gas prices is a good political issue in India as it can affect the voting pattern of the middle class.
LPG used to be a common cooking fuel in Hong Kong. However, the continued expansion of city gas in new buildings has reduced the use of LPG to less than 24% of residential buildings. However, apart from electric, induction or infrared stoves, gas stoves are the only type available in most urban areas and many public housing areas.
LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, used in almost all households, except in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, which have natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Since 2001, poor families receive government assistance (“Vale Gás”), which is used only for gas purchases. Since 2003, this assistance has been part of the government’s main social welfare program (“Bolsa Família”). Furthermore, since 2005, the national oil company Petrobras has differentiated between LPG intended for cooking and LPG intended for other purposes, setting a lower price for the former. This is the result of an order from the federal government of Brazil, but its abolition is still being discussed.
Especially in Europe and in rural areas of many countries, LPG can provide an alternative to electricity, oil or kerosene. LPG is often used in areas that do not have direct access to piped natural gas.
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LPG can be used as an energy source for combined heat and power (CHP) technology. CHP is a method of producing electricity and heat from a single fuel source. This technology allows propane-butane to be used not only as a fuel for heating and cooking, but also for shared power generation.
LPG can be stored in several ways. LPG, like other fossil fuels, can be combined with renewable energy sources for greater reliability while achieving some CO reduction.
Production. However, unlike wind and solar power, LPG can be used as an independent energy source without the excessive cost of electricity storage. In many climates, renewables such as solar and wind will still require the construction, installation and maintenance of reliable energy sources such as natural gas to provide electricity year-round. 100% air/daily is possible, with the caveat that the exposure to additional generation power required to charge the batteries as well as the cost of electric battery storage make this option only economically feasible in limited cases.
When LPG is used to heat internal combustion engines, it is often called autogas or autopropane. In some countries it has been used since the 1940s as an alternative to gasoline for spark-ignition engines. In some countries there are liquid additives that extend the life and the ratio of butane to propane is very well maintained in LPG fuel. Two specific studies have investigated LPG-petrol-diesel fuel combinations and found that emissions and fuel consumption are reduced, but hydrocarbon production is increased.
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And the other finds a small increase at low gin load but a significant decrease at high gin load.
Its advantage is that it is non-toxic, non-corrosive and does not contain tetraethyl lead or other additives and has a high octane number (102-108 RON depending on local specifications). It burns cleaner than gasoline or fuel oil and is especially free of particulate matter in the aftermarket.
LPG has a lower energy value per liter than petrol or fuel oil, so the equivalent fuel consumption is higher. Many governments tax LPG less than petrol or fuel oil, which helps reduce the higher consumption of LPG than petrol or fuel oil. However, in many European countries, this tax relief is often offset by the much higher annual tax on LPG vehicles than on petrol or diesel vehicles. Propane is the third most widely used fuel worldwide. A 2013 estimate is that more than 24.9 million vehicles use propane gas worldwide. More than 25 million tons (more than 9 billion tons) are used annually as motor fuel.
Not all car engines are suitable for use with LPG as fuel. LPG provides less lubrication to the cylinder head than petrol or diesel, so LPG engines are more likely to
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