Places In India Where Petroleum Is Found – There are 26 sedimentary basins in India with a total area of 3.4 million square kilometers. This area includes land, shallow waters up to a depth of 400 m and deep waters up to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Of the total sediment area, 49% of the total area is on land, 12% in shallow water, and 39% in deep water. There are 16 onshore pools, 7 located both onshore and offshore and 3 completely offshore. Technically, these basins are divided into 3 groups based on rift origin (intracratonic and pericratonic), plate collision and crustal subduction origin.
Based on conventional resource potential, 7 basins are grouped into Category I, covering 30% of the total basin area and 41.8 billion tons of oil and oil equivalent gas instead of 85% of total non-hazardous conventional hydrocarbons. These 7 basins are Krishna-Godavari (KG), Mumbai offshore, Assam shelf, Rajasthan, Cauvery, Assam-Arakan fold belt and Cambay. These basins account for 47% of the country’s total estimated area (1.6 million square kilometers) and 65% of the country’s total active working area (0.3 million square kilometers).
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Similarly, Category II basins comprise 23% of the total basin area, containing 9% of the total hydrocarbon space. Five basins fall under this category and they are Saurashtra, Kutch, Vindhyan, Mahanad and Andaman. These basins are estimated to be a modest 22% of the total assessed area of the country and 26% of the total active working area of the country.
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In addition, Category III basins occupy 47% of the total basin area and contain 6% of the total hydrocarbon space. Fourteen basins fall under this category and they are Kerala-Konkan, Bengal-Purnia, Ganga-Punjab, Pranhita-Godavari (PG), Satapuda-Dakshin Rewa-Damodar, Himalayan Foreland, Chhattisgarh, Narmada, Spiti-Zanskar, Deccan Syneclise, , Kareva, Bhima-Kaladgi and Bastar. These basins are estimated to be 31% of the total assessed area of the country and 9% of the total active working area of the country.
The grouping of basins into a category is dynamic, basins from Category III can be upgraded to II if discoveries are developed for commercial production (Kutch) (a recent example of the Bengala-Purna Basin) or II to Category I. / Saurashtra basin may be next. Because some FDPs are already approved. ). For unconventional resources, the above category will have completely different pool groups. For example, CBM gas is currently being produced in the Damodar sub-basin in the Satpura-Dakshin Rewa-Damodar basin, which is a Category III basin for conventional resources, however, due to commercial gas production, the basin will be classified as Category I. Unconventional Resources Resources. .
Pursuant to the reformulation of the Revenue Sharing Agreement for Hydrocarbon Exploration Licensing Policy, contractors operating in Category II and III basins for associated conventional and unconventional resources are now exempt from revenue sharing with the government. 1 Center for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore 56012, India 2 Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment, Bangalore 560000, India
The biota of the Indian subcontinent assembled at different points in its continental drift history: some formed part of Gondwanaland and later broke up from “India” and others “within India”. Asia. However, the relative contribution of these additions to the current biotic assemblage of the subcontinent remains unexplored. Our objective was to understand the relative importance of these different biotic assemblage pathways by examining the historical biogeography of tropical species of Old World freshwater snails in India.
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. We have reconstructed a nearly complete phylogeny of Ampullariidae, including all Pila species described in India, and published Ampullariidae sequences worldwide from two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers. Molecular dating and reconstruction of ancestral areas were then analyzed to determine the time period and route of colonization of India. The results suggest that pila dispersed from Africa to India as well as other parts of tropical Asia after India and Africa collided with Eurasia. Also, there are many scattered between Southeast Asia and India. The conclusion that much of the current assemblage of biota dispersed into India after the collision with Asia adds to the rapidly accumulating evidence.
The present assemblage of flora and fauna is the result of a combination of current and historical processes (Brown and Lomolino, 1998). Geological processes such as continental drift are key historical processes that drive the amalgamation of flora and fauna. In this context, the Indian subcontinent is of great interest to historical biogeographers because of its plate tectonic history. India was part of the supercontinent Gondwanaland along with Africa, South America, Antarctica, Australia and Madagascar. Indo-Madagascar separated from the others about 121 million years ago (mya) (Sanmartín et al., 2004). Later, India separated from Madagascar about 80 million years ago (Chatterjee and Scottage, 1999), turned north and connected with Asia about 55 to 35 million years ago (Aitchison, Ali and Davis, 2008). Thus, India’s complex geological history provides an opportunity to understand how plate tectonic processes shape the biota as a whole.
Mann (1974) classified the biota of India into several categories according to their probable origin, such as an Ethiopian (African) component in the west, a Palaearctic component in the north, an Indochinese or Sundanese (Southeast Asian) component. In the east and the endemic component of the peninsula. South However, the origin of the peninsular forms is highly disputed. It was hypothesized and later found that some of them were present in Peninsular India (PI) and Sri Lanka after the Indian plate separated from Madagascar about 90 million years ago (mya), as well as the endemic frog family Nasikabatrachidae (Biju & Bossuyt). , 2003). ) and other scattered genera in the ‘outside India’ marine zone: ichthyophid caecilians (Gower et al., 2002), Dipterocarpaceae (Dyanandan et al., 1999) and Crypteroniaceae (Conti et al., 2002). However, some forms found in moist evergreen forests of the Western Ghats in PI were considered to be d/closely related forms in Northeast India and Southeast Asia (Mani 1974). Indeed, molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that many taxa from the Indian subcontinent, not just wetland taxa, originated in Southeast Asia (Honda et al., 1999; Noonan and Chippindale, 2006; Koehler and Glabrecht, 2006; Boehler and Glabrecht, 2009; Adamson, 2009). Harwood, & Mather, 2010; Jansen, Savolainen, & Vepsaliinen, 2010; Rehan et al., 2010; Datta-Roy et al., 2012; Agrawal & Karanth, 2015; Barley et al., 2010; Klaus et al., 2016 ). There are theories that suggest that some groups dispersed from Africa to the Indian plate during the transition from India to the north, when it was closer to the latter (Briggs, 2003). This scattered land bridge also belongs to an island chain called the Oman-Kohistan-Drass island arc that connected the two landmasses around 75-65 million years ago (Chatterjee and Scottage, 2010). Furthermore, after the African plate joined Eurasia around 40 million years ago (Van Yperen, 2005), various African elements spread to India via the “Eurasian route”. Thus, the origins of the Indian biota are diverse, some with ancient origins in Gondwanaland, and others more recently spread from Asia or Africa to ‘India’ (Praveen Karanth, 2006; Datta-Roy and Pravin Karanth, 2009). However, the relative importance of these different faunal assemblage pathways in India is still not well understood. Further investigations of the understudied groups found in Peninsular India with similarities to Africa and South Asia will over time provide a better understanding of patterns of faunal assemblages in Peninsular India.
The signature of continental drift in biogeographic phenomena is best observed in freshwater systems because of its pattern of dispersal: by water currents. Terrestrial connectivity is essential for the physical connection of freshwater between different land masses. This ensures that most of the decomposition by freshwater organisms will be land discharge events. Therefore, their phylogenies generally reflect continental separation and connectivity. genre
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Widespread in tropical and subtropical Asia, including India, Africa and Madagascar. It belongs to the family Ampullariidae, which is found in many Gondwanan regions such as: India, Africa, Madagascar and South America, as well as Central America and Southeast Asia (SEA). to be
SEA, Madagascar and Africa form an interesting model system for studying the role of the Indian plate in the assembly of SEA biota. Previous Indian members had it
It is a Gondwanan component introduced into the IP after the breakup of the supercontinent and transported to Asia by the Indian plate (Berthold, 1991), acting as a “biological ferry”. The biotic cycle hypothesis has been proposed and supported by several studies on different taxonomic groups (Mann, 1974; Hedges, 2003; Bossuet et al., 2006). However, this scenario is not supported by the limited molecular phylogenetic studies conducted in this group (Hayes, Cowie, & Thiengo, 2009). This study made a distinction between Africans and Asians
The split between Old World and New World ampullariids is much more recent, contrasting with the Gondwanaland fragmentation sequence. That’s why he came to this conclusion
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Asia was later colonized after Africa collided with Eurasia. However, we believe this result to be tentative because Asian samples are scarce: no species from India specifically were included and no molecular dating analysis was performed. Because India has ancient Gondwana connections, Indian species are included
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