List Of Petroleum Products And Their Uses – Although crude oil is primarily known for producing fuel oil and gasoline, the useful material can also be converted into many products that we use every day. When superheated crude oil is cooled in a distillation column, the gases condense into liquids and solids depending on which part of the column is cooled (the crude oil is colder at the top and hotter at the bottom).
Crude oil distillation produces 19 gallons of gasoline per 42-gallon barrel of crude oil, which is mixed with additives such as fuel injector cleaner and ethanol before being pumped into the tank. Benzene is also distilled from crude oil, and the benzene then produces phenol, which is the basis of many plastics and drugs, such as hair dye, sunscreen, and aspirin.
List Of Petroleum Products And Their Uses
Refinery gases, including propane, propane and butane, help fuel the grill and create Tupperware. The naphtha is usually further distilled into two streams; Heavy naphtha is very important in the production of thermoplastics (in materials such as Teflon, vinyl and nylon) and thermosetting plastics (in epoxy resins, vulcanized rubber and inflatable rafts). Light kerosene is high in paraffin, so it is used to make paraffin wax in crayons and candles.
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Kerosene, which burns at a higher temperature than gasoline, is used as fuel for both tourist stoves and jet aircraft. Lubricating oils give rise to mineral oils, such as base oils used for lubrication in American factories, and petroleum jelly, which is the basis of many cosmetic products. Diesel fuel is used not only for diesel, but also for heating homes, and the fuel oil remaining after the distillation of high-quality fuels (or fuel oil residues) is used to fuel ships and power plants. The bottom of the distillation chamber and the final residue produced at high temperatures produce asphalt, which is used in road construction and roofing. This was originally published on Elements. Join our free mailing list to receive beautiful views of natural resource megatrends delivered to your email every week.
From gasoline in our cars to plastic in countless everyday items, crude oil is an essential raw material that appears everywhere in our lives.
The U.S. consumes about 18 million barrels of crude oil every day, a commodity that is an essential component in transportation, utilities, and many everyday things.
This graphic shows how much crude oil is refined into various finished products, using barrels of oil to represent the proportional distribution.
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Crude oil is mainly refined into a variety of fuels to power transportation and essential supplies. More than 85% of crude oil is refined into fuels such as gasoline, diesel and hydrocarbon gases (HGLs) such as propane and butane.
In addition to being a fuel for transportation, heating, and cooking, HGL is used as a raw material in the production of chemicals, plastics, and synthetic rubber, and as an additive in the production of gasoline.
Crude oil not only powers our vehicles, but also helps pave the roads we drive on. Refined crude oil contains about 4% asphalt, which is used to make concrete and various sealing and insulation products.
While transportation and utility fuels dominate many refined products, essential everyday materials such as wax and plastics also depend on crude oil. About 10% of refined products are used in the production of plastics, cosmetics and clothing, so a barrel of crude oil can produce many unexpected everyday products.
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Personal care products such as cosmetics and shampoos are made using petroleum products, as are medical supplies such as IV bags and pharmaceutical products. Modern life would look very different without crude oil.
You may have noticed that even though a barrel of oil holds 42 gallons, it ultimately produces 45 gallons of refined product. This is because most refined products have a lower density than crude oil, which results in an increase in volume called refining gain.
In addition to crude oil, there are other raw materials used in the refining process. Although crude oil is the primary feedstock, fuel ethanol, hydrocarbon gases, and other mixed liquids are used.
It usually takes 12-24 hours to process a batch of 30,000 barrels of crude oil, and refineries operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Although the share of individual refined products may vary depending on market demand and other factors, the majority of crude oil will continue to fuel the world’s transportation and utilities.
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From burning the heavy fuels that cover icebergs in Arctic waters to the piles of plastic made from petrochemicals that end up in our rivers, every barrel of oil and its refined products affects our environment in different ways.
But even as the world works to reduce fossil fuel consumption to meet climate goals, a world without crude oil seems unimaginable.
Rising sales of electric cars still haven’t stopped oil consumption in places like Norway, California and China, and continued travel and economic reopening will only increase oil consumption.
A complete replacement of the versatile “black gold” contained in barrels of oil is currently impossible, but as electrification continues and alternatives to petrochemicals are found, humanity can at least reduce its dependence on burning fossil fuels.
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A 25-Year Energy View of Lithium Production Lithium production by country has grown exponentially in recent decades. Which country produces the most lithium and how has the mix evolved?
The light metal plays a key role in the cathodes of all types of lithium-ion batteries that power electric cars. Consequently, the recent surge in EV adoption has pushed lithium production to new heights.
The infographic above shows lithium production by country over 25 years from 1995 to 2021, based on data from BP’s World Energy Statistics Report.
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In fact, in 1995 the United States produced more than one-third of the world’s lithium production. From then until 2010, Chile became the largest producer, increasing production at the Salar de Atacama, one of the world’s richest deposits of lithium shale.
In 2021, global lithium production will exceed 100,000 tons for the first time, a fourfold increase compared to 2010. Moreover, almost 90% of it was obtained from only three countries.
Australia alone produces 52% of the world’s lithium. Unlike Chile, where lithium is extracted from brine, Australia’s lithium comes from hard rock mines for the mineral spodumene.
China, the third largest producer, has strong support in the lithium supply chain. Along with the development of local mines, Chinese companies have acquired lithium assets worth about $5.6 billion in countries such as Chile, Canada and Australia over the past decade. It also has 60% of the world’s lithium refining capacity for batteries.
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Batteries have been one of the main drivers behind the growth of lithium production. But how much lithium is used in batteries and how much is used in other applications?
Although lithium is best known for its role in rechargeable batteries, and rightfully so, it has many other important uses.
Before electric cars and lithium-ion batteries changed demand for lithium, the metal’s end uses looked very different than they do today.
In 2010, ceramics and glass made up the largest share of lithium consumption – 31%. In ceramic and glassware, lithium carbonate increases strength and reduces thermal expansion, which is often required for modern glass ceramic cooktops.
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Lithium is also used to make lubricants for the transportation, steel, and aerospace industries, as well as other lesser-known uses.
As the world produces more batteries and electric vehicles, demand for lithium is expected to reach 1.5 million tons of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) by 2025 and more than 3 million tons by 2030.
For reference, the world produced 540,000 tons of LCE in 2021. Based on the above demand projections, production is expected to triple by 2025 and nearly six times by 2030.
While exponential growth in supply is projected, it could take more than 6 to 15 years for new lithium projects to come online. As a result, the lithium market is expected to be in short supply in the coming years.
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