Is Oil A Fossil Fuel – Adel Sharif receives funding from the Royal Society, EPSRC and BBSRC and is a founding member of Modern Water Plc.
Rizwan Nawaz does not work for, apply for, participate in or receive money from any company or organization that may benefit from this article, nor has he disclosed anything related to education.
Is Oil A Fossil Fuel
Almost all scientists agree that burning fossil fuels contributes to climate change. But there is no clear consensus about its effect on global warming.
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The world is now 1 °C warmer than pre-industrial times. Is this only due to greenhouse gases like CO₂? Climatologist Hubert Lamb, known as the father of modern climate, said that CO₂ levels alone cannot account for everything happening on Earth.
Instead his attention turned to the area of hot air. Fuel oil not only emits greenhouse gases, but also emits a large amount of heat, which is released into the atmosphere. Nuclear tests and volcanic eruptions are examples of other major sources of heat.
Back in 2009, two scientists in Sweden argued that greenhouse gases are more important than CO₂ in global warming. A few years later, two Chinese scientists said that heat from the Earth’s surface could be driving global warming. They said fossils such as coal, oil and gas in layers and cracks beneath the earth act as a protective blanket, trapping heat from the earth’s interior. As these deposits shrink due to burning oil, more heat can reach the surface.
The concept is similar to how the fatty tissue under the skin prevents body heat from being lost to the surrounding air. To test this theory in the soil of the world, we looked at the statistics of the production of fossil fuels in the world along with the data of changes in the temperature of the land and sea. Our research shows that it is possible that the temperature can rise rapidly in the places where the remaining oil is removed from the earth.
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When the underground reserves of fossil fuels are depleted, their function as an insulating blanket between the temperature of the Earth’s core and its surface is lost. Sentavio / Shutterstock
Between 2007 and 2017, 45.5 billion tons of oil and 36.3 billion cubic meters of natural gas were removed from the world’s waste. When oil and gas are extracted, the holes are filled with water, which does not work well. This means that more heat from the Earth’s core can be transferred to the surface, and this causes the Earth and oceans to warm.
We looked at the trends in oil and gas producing regions around the world. Those areas, which included Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Sea and Alaska, reported the highest temperatures – between three and seven times the global average.
One of the fastest warming is seen in the Arctic, where the temperature has increased by 0.6 ° C in the decade since 1978. In Antarctica, however, the increase is only 0.1 ° C, where even the same levels of atmospheric CO₂ in all polar regions. .
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One reason for this difference may be that fossil fuels are produced in the Arctic, but not in the Antarctic. Since 2007, more than 400 oil and gas fields have been developed north of the Arctic Circle, and in Antarctica, fossil fuels are prohibited.
Previous research has found similar evidence in north-east England, where a history of coal mining has significantly altered the soil. So much so that a “heat island” has been found low and under the old coalfields around Gateshead and Newcastle. This means that the air above the peak was 2°C warmer than the surrounding area, while the bottom of Gateshead was found to be 4.5°C warmer.
The ground water coming out of the mine’s pumping stations was also found to be very hot, possibly due to the heat of the ground. The researchers found that this could be expected in Britain’s old coal fields.
Could the extreme heat in these areas be caused by the Earth losing its inner “heat shield”? The idea that some subterranean areas have a protective layer, preventing heat from the interior of the earth from rising to the surface, is not as strange as it may sound. After all, the ozone layer in the Earth’s atmosphere protects against ultraviolet radiation, but it was discovered in the 19th century. New wonders of the world come out all the time.
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If there is a similar thermal protection in the earth’s soil, more needs to be done to strengthen it. Carbon dioxide from industry and energy production can be stored in the cracks left by fossil fuels, recirculating underground and helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that could increase global warming.
Scientists have said for some time that any hope of ending catastrophic climate change depends on leaving fossil fuels in the ground. Our first findings may bring warning to a new problem. Underground oil reserves have been around longer than humans have been exploiting them – we know very little and worry about the consequences of removing them.
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Led by Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Ed Markey, they are calling for significant investment in renewable energy and other measures over the next decade that would reduce or eliminate the nation’s dependence on fossil fuels.
As experts in environmental, social and policy-based science, we strongly support this. And, as explained in a recent study, climate change is not the only reason to abandon fossil fuels.
The coal, oil and gas industry also contributes significantly to human rights abuses, public health disasters and environmental degradation.
As we conduct our research, we are constantly exposed to new evidence that fossil fuels are harming people and communities everywhere along with fossil fuels, especially where they extract coal, oil and natural gas.
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Oil requires what journalist Naomi Klein calls “victimized areas”—places and areas that have been damaged or destroyed by oil drilling and mining. But we have seen that politicians and other decision-makers tend to ignore harm and injustice and that many of those who exercise power – that is, ‘most people’ know about it.
We see no evidence that decisions about new pipelines, power plants and other fossil fuel facilities are based on the harm and cost of these industries to people and the potential damage caused by pollution and other problems caused by the burning of fossil fuels. . .
Burning coal, oil and gas is very bad for human health. This burning causes serious air pollution, which causes 7 million premature deaths worldwide every year.
A study led by climate scientists from Duke University found that reducing greenhouse gases can achieve the goal of reducing global warming to 1.5 C, a level that scientists believe can prevent the effects of climate change, preventing premature deaths of 153 million, mainly by reducing Air. pollution.
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Some areas are more vulnerable than others. For example, EPA researchers analyzing data collected between 2009 and 2013 found that black Americans are affected by pollution 1.5 times more than whites.
More than 2,000 miners across Appalachia have died of black lung disease. This disease, also called coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, is caused by inhaling coal mine dust.
And thousands of coal miners died of severe silicosis after ingesting tiny particles of silicon in the mines. And areas where oil and gas are extracted are affected by water and air pollution, which endangers their health, and increases the risk of certain childhood cancers.
A team of health scientists at Harvard said that 53 premature deaths each year, 570 emergency room visits and 14,000 asthma attacks a year can be attributed to the damage at a coal plant in Salem, Massachusetts, one of the sites we examined. .
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Additionally, those living within 30 kilometers of a coal plant, which was replaced by a gas-fired power plant in 2018, were two to five times more likely to have respiratory problems and other illnesses than those living farther away.
The plant burned coal from La Guajira, Colombia, which is mined from Cerrejón, one of the largest mines in the world. The mine itself displaced thousands of local people due to coercion, coercion and contamination of farmland and drinking water.
When coal plants are closed, more natural gas is burned. Which should be clean and safe – right? Not exactly.
First, methane gas is a greenhouse gas that comes out of gas pipelines and other equipment, which means that the use of gas warms the climate.
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