Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum – The fuel used in a modern car, be it petrol, diesel or even LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), must meet high purity standards for the car engine to run smoothly.

The oil is broken down into hydrocarbons inside the fractionating column. Lighter hydrocarbons, including gasoline, settle to the top of the column, while heavier hydrocarbons, such as diesel, settle from the bottom.

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

Modern fuels must be volatile enough to burn quickly even under adverse conditions, and must contain the right mixture of balanced hydrocarbons to develop useful energy in an internal combustion engine. The fuel must also have the correct octane value to avoid combustion (detonation too early) which can damage the engine.

Fractional Distillation Of Crude Oil: Refining Petroleum Products

Internal combustion engines are designed to operate at certain fuel levels and are tuned to operate close to the limits that the fuel can support, so consistent quality is important in today’s fuels.

Both gasoline and diesel are derived from crude oil, which is a complex mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons, as well as other products that must be removed during processing. Petroleum oils vary from source to source; They usually contain light volatile liquids, including gasoline, as well as heavier solid components such as bitumen.

Separating and refining gasoline and diesel from crude oil requires complex operations at the refinery.

Partial distillation of oil into its composition is called fractional distillation. This separates the different components of the oil, which boil and evaporate at different temperatures.

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The first process takes place in a crushing shaft, a tall cylindrical tower, 250 feet (75 m) high, containing between 30 and 40 trays, stacked one on top of the other. The bottom of the column stays very hot, but as you move up the column, the temperature drops so that each tray is slightly cooler than the one below.

Oil is heated between 315°C and 370°C, and all but the heaviest substances evaporate. Then it is fed to the bottom of the separation column as a mixture of gas and liquid. The oil vapor travels up the shaft through devices such as bridge caps, into the thrust bearings, causing it to mix well with the liquid in it. The heavier liquid oil falls to the bottom of the column.

When the steam rises, it adjusts to the temperature of the trays. When the vapor passes through it and bubbles through the tray containing the liquid, its temperature corresponds to the individual boiling point of the vapor, and that component leaves the tray. Otherwise, high-boiling vapors rise in the column.

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

In this way, each component of the pair meets the stipulated plate. The result is a series of separate components called fractions, which can be removed from the shaft through pipes.

Oil Refining And Gas Processing

There are six main factions. When it reaches the top of the column, the lightest gas present is called refinery gas and is used as fuel by the refinery itself.

The rest is processed in an additional plant. The lightest of the resulting liquid fractions is very volatile and is used for blending with gasoline.

Then there is petroleum (used to process petrochemicals or mix them into gasoline), kerosene (which is mainly paraffin), diesel oils, light and heavy oils used in industrial lubrication, followed by the heaviest part, bitumen. the left

The basic fractional distillation process separates petroleum into chemically pure hydrocarbons. But some of these hydrocarbons are more expensive than others. In particular, the demand for gasoline is much higher than for bitumen or diesel. Therefore, some of the heavy fractions are converted into gasoline in the refinery. This is done through a process known as fracking.

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In thermal cracking, hydrocarbons are heated between 450 °C and 540 °C under high pressure. The result is a lower grade fuel, which is then refined at a higher temperature and pressed to produce a higher quality gasoline that can be used in car engines.

Catalytic cracking is more beneficial than thermal cracking because it provides higher yields of useful products. By adding a catalyst (usually aluminum and silica powder) to the oil in the pre-heating stage, the heavy fractions can be broken down into lighter fractions, which are then fed to a fractionation column for separation.

These conversions are accompanied by processing steps where appropriate additives are added to make the blended gasoline suitable for winter or summer use.

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

In order for gasoline to be useful for the operation of internal combustion engines, gasoline must have certain properties. The engine should burn smoothly without detonation at speed or acceleration. This manifests as “knock” and, if allowed to continue, can cause serious engine damage.

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Gasoline should contain light, volatile components that allow the engine to run easily in cold weather. But gasoline should not be so volatile that it easily evaporates and causes blockage in the fuel system, even carburetor glaze (see outside, right).

Gasoline performance is largely measured by its octane number. To do this, gasoline is compared to two standard fuels called n-heptane and iso-octane, both of which are hydrocarbons. N-heptane is a weak fuel for internal combustion engines and causes severe knocking; It has an octane rating of 0. On the other hand, Isooctane is a higher quality fuel with an octane number of 100.

If gasoline has an octane rating of 90, it gives the equivalent of a mixture of 90 parts of isooctane to 10 parts of neptane. Most car engines require gasoline with an octane rating between 90 and 100.

As an additional measure, it is common practice to add small amounts of tetraethyl or tetramethyl lead to gasoline. However, due to the toxic nature of lead, this is steadily decreasing.

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The maximum allowed amount of gasoline was lowered from 0.4 to 0.15 grams per liter in 1986, and undiluted gasoline began to appear on the European market. This is gasoline that does not contain lead compounds.

Fuel – the part of it that vaporizes at a certain temperature – must meet certain limits. If the volatility is too low, the car engine is difficult to start and takes a long time to warm up. If it’s too high, it could be the engine

. In extreme cases, volatile fuel can cause carburetor icing because as the fuel evaporates, it absorbs heat from its surroundings, cooling the carburetor body so much that water in the air freezes and clogs the jets.

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

Diesel oil is more viscous and heavier than gasoline, is less volatile, and leaves the column with a lower rate of dispersion.

The Petroleum Value Chain: From Crude Oil To Useful Products

Diesel oil is not rated by an octane rating like gasoline; Instead, it is given a cetane name. This was obtained by comparing diesel with two other hydrocarbons, cetane and alpha-methylnaphthalene.

High quality diesel fuel used in road vehicles has a cetane rating of around 50, while slower engines such as those used on large ships can be fueled with less cetane. The higher the ethane rating, the easier the starting, the easier the combustion, and the lower the level of “diesel knock”.

Some low-quality diesel (called gasoline) used in stationary or off-road use is dyed for identification and is therefore called red diesel. White diesel can only be used with road tax by law.

Diesel oil, like gasoline, usually contains important additives. Anti-icing and anti-waxing agents should be added to diesel fuel used in cold weather to prevent clogging of fuel lines and injectors.

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Gasoline and diesel are transported from refineries to garages and gas stations by road or rail in specially designed tanks.

Fuel is usually stored in underground tanks at the store – gas station. Gasoline and diesel fuel, as well as different types of gasoline, are stored in separate tanks until they are raised above the ground and metered for sale at the pumps.

Road tankers fill underground storage tanks with on-board hoses that are connected by the tanker driver at each fill. Due to the danger of an explosion of gasoline vapors, the risk of sparks is reduced by using a material such as brass for the hose connections and the tools used to connect them.

Is Crude Oil The Same As Petroleum

Fuel is stored at gas stations before it is sold, where pumps lift the gasoline from tanks above the ground, at the same time measuring the amount of fuel sold. Gasoline and diesel are usually stored separately

Crude Oil And Global Development

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