How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

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Material makes up only a small part of the structure of the universe. Dark energy, the invisible matter that accelerates the expansion of the universe, dominates, followed by dark matter, the invisible force of gravity.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology () and their colleagues have developed a new method for finding dark matter, which is a mysterious object in the universe that hasn’t been discovered in decades. Dark matter makes up about 27% of the universe; Ordinary matter, such as that which makes up stars and planets, makes up only 5 percent of the universe. (The other 68% is a mysterious group called dark energy.)

The Simplest Argument For Dark Matter

According to cosmologists, all the visible matter in the universe is simply floating in a vast ocean of dark matter, particles that are invisible but nevertheless heavy and exert gravitational forces. Dark gravity would create the missing glue that keeps galaxies from falling apart and records how things stick together in a rich universe.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

The proposed experiment, in which pendulums a trillionth of a millimeter in size would act as dark matter sensors, would be the first to hunt for dark matter through its interactions with force, attractors, and material things. The experiment would be one of several that will search for dark matter particles with the mass of a grain of salt, a scale rarely tested and never studied with sensors capable of recording energy. attract younger people.

Dark matter, the hidden substance in our universe, is notoriously difficult to detect. While searching for direct evidence, the researchers proposed using a 3D array of pendulums as energy devices that can detect the influence of gravity on the passage of dark particles. When a dark particle is close to a hanging pendulum, the pendulum must swing slightly due to the attraction of both masses. However, this force is very small and it is difficult to isolate the ambient noise that moves the pendulum. To better separate the deflection of passing particles, the researchers propose using a series of pendulums. Ambient noise affects each pendulum individually, causing them to move independently. However, the particles passing through the group will produce variations relative to the pendulum. Because these motions are coupled, they can be separated from background noise, revealing how much energy the particle imparts to each pendulum and the particle’s velocity and direction, or velocity.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

Accelerating Expansion Of The Universe

Previous experiments have searched for dark matter by looking for troublesome signs of interactions between invisible particles and certain types of ordinary matter. Such was the case with the investigation of a hypothetical type of dark matter called a WIMP (weakly interacting large particle), which has been a leading candidate for invisible objects for more than two decades. The physicists looked for evidence that WIMPs sometimes collided with chemicals inside the device, emitting light or striking an electrical charger.

Researchers searching for WIMPs in this way have gotten inconclusive or inconclusive results; the particles are too light (organized by the difference in mass between electrons and protons) to be detected by their absorption.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

In the search for WIMP, which appears to be winding down, the researchers and their colleagues are considering a more specific way to search for supermassive dark particles, and thus use enough gravity to make them visible.

Satellite Galaxies Provide New Clues About Dark Matter

“Our proposal is based solely on gravitational coupling, which is the only connection we know for sure exists between dark matter and ordinary light matter,” said co-author Daniel Carney. , a physicist affiliated with the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) and the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS) at the University of Maryland in College Park and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

Researchers including Jacob Taylor of JQI and QuICS; Sohitri Ghosh of JQI and QuICS; and Gordan Krnjaić of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, estimate that their method can search for dark particles with a mass of about half a grain of salt, or about a billion times the mass of a proton. The scientists publish their findings today in the journal Physical Review D.

Since the only unknown in the experiment is the amount of dark matter, not how it interacts with normal matter, “if someone does the experiment we recommend, they might find dark matter or reject it.”

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

Dark Matter And Dark Energy In Paperback By

People are as dark as possible,” Carney said. The test can be sensitive to particles as small as 1/5,000 of a milligram down to a few milligrams.

This difficulty scale is very interesting because it includes the so-called Planck Weight, the amount of weight measured solely by the three basic elements of nature and which is approximately 1/5,000 grams.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

Carney, Taylor and their colleagues propose two plans for their dark gravity experiment. Both contain tiny, millimeter-sized devices that act as magnetic sensors. The sensors would be cooled to subzero temperatures to reduce heat-related electrical noise and to protect against cosmic rays and other sources of radioactivity. In one case, several pendulums would swing slightly in response to the tug of a passing dark matter particle.

What Kind Of Technology Could Dark Matter Research Lead To?

Similar devices (of larger dimensions) were used in the recent Nobel Prize-winning analysis of gravitational waves, piercing the fabric of space-time predicted by Einstein’s theory of gravity. The carefully placed mirrors, which act like pendulums, move less than the length of an atom in response to a passing magnetic wave.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

In another strategy, the researchers propose using magnetically attached spheres or balls that are illuminated by laser light. In this program, the levitation is turned off when the experiment starts, so the balls are free. The gravitational force of a passing dark particle can disrupt the path of freely falling objects.

“We use the movement of things as our trademark,” Taylor said. “This is different from all the other physics speakers.”

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

This Australian Experiment Is On The Hunt For An Elusive Particle That Could Help Unlock The Mystery Of Dark Matter

The researchers estimate that up to a billion distributed mechanical sensors per cubic meter are needed to distinguish a real dark particle from an ordinary particle or passive electrical signals or “noise” and cause a false alarm in the sensors. Ordinary subatomic particles like neutrons (which collide with unstable energy) could stop dead on a single particle. On the other hand, scientists hope that the dark particle, which passes by like a small asteroid, can shake everything in its path with the force of gravity.

The noise would cause the individual detectors to move randomly and independently instead of following a sequence, as a dark field would. As a bonus, the coordinated action of billions of detectors would reveal where the dark particle is moving as it gets closer.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

To create the smaller sensors, the team suggests that researchers may want to borrow techniques that the smartphone and automotive industries already use to produce large numbers of mechanical devices.

Galaxy Clusters Reveal New Dark Matter Insights

Thanks to the sensitivity of individual detectors, researchers using the technology don’t have to mess with the dark side. A smaller version of the same experiment could detect weak energy from distant seismic waves, as well as the collision of ordinary subatomic particles, such as neutrinos and single photons, with low energy (particles of light).

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

A small experiment could trap the dark particles, if they hit low-energy detectors hard enough, as some models predict, Carney said.

“We set ourselves the grand goal of building a ‘gravitational dark matter detector,’ but the research and development required to achieve that would open the door to many other detections and measurements,” Carney said. Scientists believe that the universe has three distinct components: matter that is observable (or measurable) every day, and two theoretical components called dark matter and dark energy.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

No, This Is Not A Hole In The Universe

These last two are theoretical because they can’t be measured directly, but even without fully understanding these mysterious puzzle pieces, scientists may suggest that the structure of the universe can be broken down as follows:

Dark energy is the theoretical substance that opposes gravity and makes the universe expand rapidly. It is the largest part of the fabric of the universe, permeating every corner of the universe and controlling how it will behave and ultimately end.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

Dark matter, on the other hand, has a strong antigravity force. It is a kind of “universal cement” that holds the universe together. Despite eluding direct measurement and remaining a mystery, scientists believe it makes up the second largest part of the universe.

Dark Matter, Unexplained

Hydrogen and helium float freely in space. Although they are the lightest and most abundant elements in the universe, they make up about 4% of its total mass.

How Much Of The Universe Is Dark Matter

The stars are one of the vastest things we can see when we look up.

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