How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy? – Natural gas is a fossil fuel energy source. Natural gas contains many different compounds. The largest component of natural gas is methane (CH

Natural gas also contains small amounts of natural gas liquids (NGLs are also hydrocarbon gas liquids) and non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. We use natural gas for fuel and to make materials and chemicals.

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

Millions and hundreds of millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals, such as diatoms, accumulated in thick layers, sometimes mixed with sand, silt and calcium carbonate, on the surface of the earth and the seabed. Over time, these formations were buried by sand, silt and rock. Pressure and heat convert some of this carbon- and hydrogen-rich material into coal, some into petroleum (petroleum), and some into natural gas.

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In some places, gas has seeped into cracks and large gaps between the overburden. Natural gas found in these types of formations is sometimes called conventional natural gas. Elsewhere, natural gas exists in small pores (cavities) in certain formations in shale, sandstone, and other sedimentary rocks. it is called natural gas

, sometimes called unconventional natural gas. Natural gas is also found in crude oil deposits, this type of natural gas is known as regional natural gas. Natural gas deposits are located on land, and some are located in the ocean and deep under the sea. it is called natural gas found in coal deposits

The search for natural gas began with geologists studying Earth’s structure and processes. They identify the types of geological formations that may contain gas deposits.

Geologists often use seismic surveys on land and in the ocean to find suitable locations for drilling natural gas and oil wells. Seismic exploration generates and measures seismic waves in the earth to obtain information about the geology of rock formations. Land Seismic Survey

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, has a vibrating pad that shakes the ground, creating seismic waves in the rock below. Sometimes small amounts of explosives are used. Marine seismic surveys use sonic booms that generate sound waves to probe the geology beneath the ocean floor.

If the results of the seismic survey indicate that the field has the potential to produce gas, an exploratory well will be drilled and tested. Test results provide information about the quality and quantity of natural gas in the resource.

If the test well results indicate that the geological formation contains enough gas to be profitable, one or more production (or production) wells are drilled. Natural gas wells can be drilled vertically and horizontally into gas-bearing formations. In a conventional natural gas field, gas usually flows easily from the well to the surface.

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

In the United States and some other countries, natural gas is extracted from shale and other types of sedimentary rock formations by forcing water, chemicals and sand into wells under high pressure. it is called a process

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), which fractures the formation, freeing the gas from the rock and allowing the gas to flow into the well and to the surface. At the top of the well, natural gas is collected in gathering pipes and transported to a gas processing plant.

Because natural gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, natural gas companies add mercaptans to natural gas to make it have a distinctly unpleasant odor, which helps people detect if natural gas pipelines are leaking. Mercaptan is a harmless chemical that smells like rotten eggs.

Because, in addition to methane, it usually also contains NGLs-ethane, propane, butane and pentane and water vapor. Wellhead gas may also contain non-hydrocarbon compounds such as sulfur, helium, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, most of which must be removed from the gas before it is sold to consumers.

Natural gas is sent from the wellhead to a processing facility where water vapor and non-hydrocarbons are removed and NGLs are separated from the wet gas and sold separately. Some ethane usually remains in spent natural gas. The separated NGLs are known as Natural Gas Plant Liquids (NGPL), known as Processed Natural Gas

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Natural gas. Gas produced at some wellheads is dry enough to meet pipeline standards without processing. Chemicals called odorants are added to natural gas to detect leaks in natural gas pipelines. Dry natural gas is transported through pipelines to underground storage or distribution companies and then to consumers.

Where there is no natural gas pipeline to transport the natural gas produced by the well, the natural gas can be re-injected, vented or flared (can be flared) into the oil bearing formation. Reinjecting slow-moving natural gas helps maintain well pressure to increase oil production.

CBM can be extracted from coal seams during or during coal mining and can be added to natural gas pipelines without any special treatment.

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

Most of the natural gas used in the United States is produced in the United States. Some natural gas is imported via pipeline from Canada and Mexico. A small amount of natural gas is also imported as liquefied natural gas. Many people think of crude oil as a viscous black liquid used to satisfy our insatiable desire for gasoline. However, the reality is that every barrel of oil is refined for use in a variety of applications, including fuel, cosmetics, plastics, rubber and wax.

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Today’s infographic is from JWN Energy’s oil and gas news site. Using Chevron as a source, it shows that each barrel of oil can be made into 17 different things.

But that’s not all. After producing all of the above, there is still enough petrochemicals to be used as the basis for one of the following:

Oil is not a one-trick pony, the black liquid actually has thousands of uses. Above is an example of how barrels are used, but there are many other oil applications listed here. This includes everything from guitar strings to antihistamines.

No matter what you think about fossil fuels, what comes out of the oil barrel is still amazing.

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Energy Visualization of 25 Years of Lithium Production by Country Lithium production has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Which countries produce the most lithium, and how is this mix developing?

This was originally published on Elements. Join our free mailing list and get weekly visualizations of big trends in natural resources in your email.

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

This light metal plays an important role in the cathode of all types of lithium-ion batteries that power electric vehicles. As a result, the recent surge in the use of electric vehicles has pushed lithium production to even higher levels.

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The infographic above shows lithium production by country for 25 years, from 1995 to 2021, from BP’s World Energy Statistics Review.

In fact, in 1995, the United States produced more than a third of the world’s lithium. Between then and 2010, Chile re-established itself as a top producer on the back of a boom in production from the Atacama Salar Flats, one of the world’s richest brine lithium deposits.

Global lithium production is expected to surpass 100,000 metric tons for the first time in 2021, a fourfold increase since 2010. In addition, about 90% of them come from three countries.

Australia alone produces 52% of the world’s lithium. Unlike Chile, which extracts its lithium from brine, Australia’s lithium comes from hard rock deposits of the mineral spodumene.

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China is the third largest producer and plays a key role in the lithium supply chain. In addition to developing local mines, Chinese companies have acquired lithium assets worth about $5.6 billion in countries including Chile, Canada and Australia over the past decade. It also owns 60% of the world’s lithium battery processing capacity.

Batteries have been one of the main reasons behind the exponential growth in lithium production. But how much lithium is used in batteries, and how much is used for other purposes?

Although lithium is best known for its role in rechargeable batteries — and rightfully so — it has many other important uses.

How Is Petroleum Turned Into Energy?

Before electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries changed the demand for lithium, the end uses for the metal looked very different than they do today.

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In 2010, ceramics and glass accounted for the largest share of lithium consumption at 31%. In ceramics and glassware, lithium carbonate increases strength and reduces thermal expansion, which is often important in modern glass ceramic furnaces.

Lithium is also used to make lubricants for the transportation, steel and aerospace industries, among other lesser-known uses.

Lithium demand is expected to reach 1.5 million tons of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) by 2025 and exceed 3 million tons by 2030 as global production of batteries and electric vehicles increases.

For context, the world produces 540,000 tons of LCE

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