How Is Petroleum Extracted

How Is Petroleum Extracted – Converting Complex Compounds into Usable Products Date Updated: 2018-06-01 Crude Oil and the Environment Part 16/24 Written by E. Allison and B. Mandler for AGI, 2018 Download Print Introduction Crude oil and natural gas are complex chemical solutions that usually they are not suitable for direct use. Oil refining and oil processing convert these compounds into various types of oil and other products, while at the same time removing low concentrations and pollutants. Refineries and operations have both positive and negative effects on the environment: although they remove pollutants and produce clean oil, work in refineries and factories comes voluntarily releases pollutants into the environment, affecting local air and water quality. During crude oil refining, various types of oil are condensed and extracted at high temperatures. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons users Psarianos and Theresa Knott.1 Oil Refining Crude oil is a mixture of many hydrocarbon molecules of different proportions. Smaller molecules evaporate at higher temperatures, so crude oil can be distilled to separate the various hydrocarbons. In the distillation process, the crude oil evaporates and the vapor heats the column, cooling as it rises. The different hydrocarbons evaporate at different temperatures, so they condense into liquids at different points in the column, separating the crude oil into different products that can be processed further to be good for their end use. Gasoline and diesel are the most profitable products from gasoline, so manufacturers use many methods to increase oil production. This can include cracking (breaking large molecules into smaller molecules2), hydrotreating (replacing impurities such as sulfur with hydrogen to improve fuel quality3), conversion (turning smaller molecules into gasoline2) , alkylation (use of acid to produce higher octane gasoline of the molecules 4) and mixing (mixing of different liquids to produce specific products according to regulations5). During the blending process, ethanol from industrial ethanol plants is also mixed with gasoline to increase the octane level, reduce carbon monoxide emissions, and meet the requirements of renewable fuel standards. . Mixture of hydrocarbons and different sulfur and other impurities. The proportion of different refined products will vary with changes in the type of refined oil, different product needs and regulations affecting the demand. About 80-85% of all crude oil is gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. The rest is used to produce liquefied natural gas, petrochemical feedstocks, and various other products.7 In 2016, 141 US refineries produced an average of 9.3 million barrels per day of crude oil, 3.7 million barrels of low-sulfur diesel, and 1.6. million barrels per day. million barrels of oil. upset of jet fuel.8 Refineries (open squares) and oil facilities (blue) in the United States as of February 2018. Not shown: two refineries in Hawaii and five in Alaska. Photo credit: U.S. Energy Information Administration.17 Natural Gas Processing In 2017, the United States produced 33 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.9 some of which was used in field operations, re-injected into underground reservoirs, vented or flared. ; The remainder is processed at 550 gas processing facilities to produce 27 trillion feet of pipeline-grade natural gas.10, 11 Pipeline-grade gas must meet strict standards for energy content. and purity12 for residential, commercial, and industrial uses, including petroleum. Plant power. Before processing, the natural gas is mostly methane, with the exception of other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and helium.13 Gas processing removes some of the there is methane in the gas. For: improving combustion and reducing corrosion by removing water, preventing the formation of acid by removing harmful or corrosive gases – especially sulfur and CO2 – otherwise it can be smelled​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​combustion in furnaces and other equipment, especially by removing non-flammable gases such as CO2 and nitrogen Extracts small amounts of valuable gases for other uses (such as hydrocarbons and other (like helium) Non-methane hydrocarbons extracted during gas production are called “natural gas”. (NGL) because they liquefy more easily than methane at high or low temperatures. Among NGLs, the most common are ethane, propane and butane. Ethane and propane are further processed to produce feedstock for plastics (see “Fuel and Non-Fuel Products” in this series), while propane and butane are compressed into liquids to produce fuel. electricity. Use offline. The main methods used to remove non-methane products from natural gas are absorption and cooling. Various adsorbents can be used, including special oils (for NGL), glycol (for water), amines (for sulfur and CO214), and zeolite or oil adsorbents (for nitrogen 15). Oils cooled to different temperatures release different substances when they condense into liquid. This is the most common nitrogen removal method: natural gas is cooled until the methane liquefies, causing the nitrogen gas to be released.16 NGLs can be removed in bulk and then heated to high temperatures. different to separate each NGL. turn.18 After processing, the oil is considered “dry” and ready to be sent through the pipeline to the user. Distillation, work and the environment Distillation and work reduce the environmental impact of oil by removing pollutants and improving their reliability during combustion. However, refineries and processing plants have their own impact on the environment, with methods to reduce the impact. More information about this can be found in other parts of this series: “Reducing and Controlling Methane Emissions” and “Effects of Oil and Gas on Air Quality.” Carbon dioxide (CO2) occurs in large amounts in carbon monoxide and is removed in the process to improve the quality of the gas. Most of this CO2 is released into the atmosphere, accounting for about 0.4% of all US carbon monoxide emissions (for comparison, methane leakage from natural gas production and supply chains is approximately 3% of US emissions).19 A. A. fewer facilities produce carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide when completed; This captured CO2 will be injected into the oil field to increase oil recovery.20 File 1 File: Crude Oil Distillation-en. Wikimedia Commons users Psarianos & Theresa Knott. Reproduced under CC BY-SA 3.0 license. 2 Center for Industry Education Collaboration, University of York (2014). Dissociation and impact filtration process. Essential medicine business – online. 3 Kokayeff, P. et al. (2014). Hydroprocessing in oil processing. In: Wood, S., Jones, D., Pujado, P. (eds). Handbook of fuel consumption. Springer, Chaw. 4 US Energy Information Administration (2013). Alkylation is an important part of octane in gasoline. Today in Energy, February 13, 2013 5 US Environmental Protection Agency – Gasoline Standards: Gasoline Vapor Pressure Reid. 6 US Energy Information Administration – Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel Description – Use of Ethanol. 7 US Energy Information Administration – Petroleum: Crude Oil and Crude Oil Products Description – Crude Oil Refining. 8 US Energy Information Administration – Petroleum and other liquids: US imports, crude oil and total petroleum. 9 US Energy Information Administration – US Natural Gas Extract. 10 US Energy Information Administration – Natural Gas Response System, EIA-757: Natural Gas Processing Capacity by Facility, Data Through 2014 11 US Energy Information Administration – U.S. Natural gas production. 12 North American Energy Standards Board. 13 Penn State College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Institute for E-Learning – Petroleum Refining: Natural Gas Composition and Specifications. 14 Rufford, T. E. do al. (2012). Removal of CO2 and N2 from natural gas: a review of conventional methods and new methods. J. Pet. Research. Ib., 94-95, 123-154. 15 Sep-Pro Systems – Nitrogen rejection unit. 16 US Energy Information Administration (2006). Natural Gas Processing: The Key Link Between Natural Gas Production and Transport to Market. 17 US Energy Information Administration – US Energy Map System. 18 US Department of Energy (2017). Natural gas subject, with a focus on the Appalachian region. 19 US Environmental Protection Agency (2017). US Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory: 1990-2015. 20 Global CCS Institutions – Project Database: Large CCS Facilities. Petroleum and the Environment Download the full PDF version of Petroleum and the Environment (Free) or purchase the hard copy ($19.99). Other sections in this series: 1. Petroleum and the Environment: An Introduction 2. Water in the Oil and Gas Industry 3. Vibrations from Oil and Gas Operations 4. Water for Hydraulic Operations 5. Use of production water 6. Groundwater protection in oil and gas production 7. Abandoned wells 8. What determines the location of wells? 9. Land Use in the Oil and Gas Industry 10. Pinedale Gas Field, Wyoming 11. Heavy Oil 12. Oil and Gas in the US Arctic 13. Oil and Gas in the Ocean 14. Water flow in the oil and natural gas fields 15. Oil transportation, oil and refined products 16. Oil refining and gas processing 17. Non-oil products of oil and gas 18. Impact for good air Oil and gas 19. Methane

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