How Did Luke In The Bible Die – Roger van der Weyden, Painting of the Madonna of St. Luke, 1435-1440, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Description
Christianity has saints for everything, literally everything. So let’s talk about St. Luke. He was not only one of the four evangelists but also one of the most important saints and patrons of artists. Hence many colleges and guilds are named after him. In addition, it provided inspiration for many paintings in European art. Now let’s dive into its story and its representation in Western art history.
How Did Luke In The Bible Die
Saint Luke is traditionally considered the creator of the first statue of the Virgin Mary. Let’s explore his life story, significance in art history and most important performances.
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All saints begin with simple people, and Saint Luke also came from a humble background. According to Jacobus de Voragine’s The Golden Legend, he was a Gentile from Antioch in Syria. In fact, there is some debate as to whether he was a true disciple of Christ, or whether he later repented. Nevertheless, he reached one of the most important places in Christianity as one of the four evangelists. For him, he is part of the tetrahedron, and is represented by a winged bull. He wrote the third Gospel and Acts. Therefore, the painter usually shows him writing or holding a book, like the other evangelists.
Often saints are patrons of various things, and Luke is no exception. In fact, if he was a doctor, he was also his guardian. Available
St. Paul called him “the beloved Doctor.” Indeed, medicine and art are not such a rare pairing. For example, Western art schools have many professors who teach anatomy to artists. In addition, both professions require a detailed understanding of the human body. But this does not fully explain why he is a patron of artists. To understand this we have to talk about the Virgin Mary and the Byzantine Empire.
According to Eastern Church tradition, Saint Luke is considered the first portrait painter. Although there is no evidence for this, texts referring to his Madonna and Child icons began to appear in the 8th century. His gospel is notable for its detail in the story of Christ’s infancy. This likely led to the attribution, as it indicated a deep intimacy between them. However, most likely, he was either younger than Jesus or not even a contemporary. Yet, the Christian tradition has embraced this story for centuries.
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Saint Luke painted a 14th-century icon of the Mother of Hodgetaria, Recklinghausen Icon Museum, Recklinghausen, Germany.
Of the evangelist and apostle Luke, all his contemporaries say that he painted with his own hands the incarnate Christ and his most holy mother, whose images are said to be in Rome with great honor. are alive In Jerusalem, they are carefully displayed. Andre de Crate on the veneration of holy icons, 8th century. Quoted in Rebecca Raynor, Making Icons: Saint Luke, The Artist, 2015.
The myth begins in the Iconic period of the Byzantine Empire. He speculates that idolaters used this myth to defend images in churches. Let’s not forget that most people in the Middle Ages were illiterate. This is why churches use images as teaching tools. If the sage is responsible for creating the icon, the image may be present. Additionally, Gregory of Chicos confirms in a 15th-century account that the Virgin painted the portraits herself. Apparently, the Virgin recognized the talent of Saint Luke. It just confirms the presence of the icon. Not only that, but Maharaja Gabriel provided him with a tablet. As far as sacred images are concerned, these certainly rank high.
In any case, by the 8th century, people began to attribute specific icons to Saint Luke himself. One of the characteristics is the use of wax painting techniques (also used in portraits of fume mummies). It basically consists of adding hot wax to the pigment and applying it to the wood. Furthermore, in determining attribution, they took into account the age of the piece and its divine power to perform miracles.
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Icons attributed to St. Luke serve the same function as archetypes. No matter which church has a single sign, its popularity and importance will increase. As a result, the number of attributes has increased over the centuries. However, there is a strong belief that certain portraits are the creation of saints. It also became a source of legitimacy for various political and church authorities.
The icon above shows a statue of the Virgin holding Christ. She points to him as the way to salvation. It is called
Because the original episode is on display at the Panaghia Hodegetria monastery in Constantinople. However, several texts mention St. Luke as the author. Unfortunately, it disappeared when the Ottoman Empire conquered the city in the 15th century.
Santa Maria del Rosario in Rome. Whether or not St. Luke actually painted it, it certainly served to attract followers to the church and the city and to maintain its prestige.
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In the Eastern tradition, the early portraits of St. Luke are few, but sufficient to give us an idea of the general picture of the evangelist as a painter. He usually sits on the left, with a donkey in front of him. As the story progresses, he paints the Virgin and Child. Sometimes he is alone, and with him are others “divine wisdom.”
But the story of the painting of St. Luke does not stop in the East. Since the Middle Ages, Western traditions have taken this story and spread it through their art. Obviously, the story of St. Luke on this continent is derived from the Golden Legend. Although the chapter about him does not appear in his alleged artwork, he does appear in the chapter on Pope St. Gregory.
…He carried the image of the Virgin, as mentioned, made St. Luke an evangelist, was an excellent painter, and engraved and painted the magnificent Virgin Mary. Jacobus de Voragine Golden Legend, 13th century.
The earliest depictions of Saint Luke in the West date back to the 14th century. Although some elements of the Byzantine tradition remain, significant changes have taken place over time. This is an addition. As mentioned earlier, he is part of the Tetramorph. Western artists seem to take this into account more, like the cow returning to its image. Also, the Virgin and Child pose appears in many paintings, especially Scandinavian and Italian paintings.
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Derek Bergert, Painting of the Madonna and Child of St. Luke, circa 1470, Westphalian State Museum of Art and Cultural History, Münster, Germany.
Here, the Virgin is shown nursing Christ. In addition, van der Weyden places details such as an enclosed garden to symbolize the virgin’s purity; and an engraving of Adam and Eve to remind visitors of human redemption.
Vasari’s image shows a cow in the lower right corner of the painting. Unlike the more secular representations of the Virgin in Nordic work, here Mary stands in a cloud with five angels.
Giordano’s scene leaves the studio and takes us into a mysterious environment. Some angels act as assistants, while others help the virgin.
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The legend of Saint Luke and its depiction have been a common theme in the 18th century. Then it dies down a bit. However, it still exists in many places. Indeed, churches, chapels and other religious buildings are dedicated to saints. Apart from this, many institutions of the art world have adopted his name. For example the famous Academy of San Luca in Rome and many painters’ guilds in Europe. Even today we celebrate his day on 18 October.
Indeed, the memory of St. Luke never left the scene entirely. The famous Pre-Raphaelite painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti wrote this poem in the 19th century.
This is attributed to the Evangelist Luke; For it was he (according to ancient tradition) who first learned the art of praying with folded hands. Almost at once he durst not tear through the mist of clever symbols: but soon he understood more deeply how vast and silent were the symbols, and through them he saw God, and the priesthood of God. became If her afternoon’s toil grows weary, She seeks talismans, turns to soulless human skills, But now, in this dimness, she’ll still kneel in the last grass and pray, first. come on Night is fine, he is not working. Sonnet to the Portrait of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1850.
1. R. Raynor: “The Making of Idols: The Artist Saint Luke,” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 2015, p. 161-172. Accessed 17 October 2021.
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2. R. Raynor: “In the Image of Saint Luke: Early Byzantine Artists,” Academia.edu, 2012. Accessed 17 October 2021.
3. C. Boeckl: The Legend of St. Luke the Painter: Eastern and Western Iconography, 2005. Accessed 19 October