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Are Fleas And Lice The Same Thing
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Received: 6 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of ecopods in dead raptors in rescue centers in Tuscany, central Italy. Diurnal raptors examined included 17 common buzzards (Butio butio), two European buzzards (Pernis apivorus), seven sparrowhawks (Acceptor nisus), six common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), one western osprey (Pandion a perinegalus, Falco peregrinus ). Nocturnal raptors included seven barn owls (Tyto alba), ten barn owls (Strix aleuco), 22 little owls (Athene noctua) and two barn owls (Otes scopus). The skin and feathers of each animal were examined, arthropods were collected, fixed, and identified microscopically. In 48 of the 75 birds (64%) examined, at least one species of arthropod was found. Arthropods identified include lice (Digeriella fulva, D. rufa, Colpocephalum turbinateum, C. epivorus, Nosopon lucidum, N. claye, Crespedorhynchus platystomus, Laemobothrian tinnunculi, Kurodea subpachygaster, Phytriosphilciosiderosigreeros, Phytriosphilciosiderosigreeros, Phytriosophiligree) . Spiders (Kramerella lunulata, K. lyra, Kramerella sp., Glaucalges attenuatus, Hieracolichus nisi, Hieracolichus sp., Neotrombicula autumnalis) and ticks (Haemaphysalis sp.). Most of the insects, flies and tick species identified are the first records of raptors in Italy. In addition, this study presents the first record of Hieracolicus sp. And according to p. Heliots and F. N. on Tinnunculus. end of fall.
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Arthropods associated with raptors include lice, moths, ticks, fleas and flies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Lice and wingworms are frequently reported in raptors, which in most cases do not show any clinical symptoms [2, 4, 6, 7, 8]. However, some raptor ectoparasites can cause severe wing damage, loss of wings, severe itching and resulting weakness, anxiety, impaired communication, and in extreme cases can be fatal to the host bird [1, 5, 7, 9]. In addition, chigger mites, ticks and hippobosid flies can cause anemia and rash and ulcerative dermatitis, often complicated by secondary bacterial infections, and are multipathogenic vectors [1, 2, 7, 8, 10]. Ectoparasites can infect natural and captive populations or can experience extinction along with their hosts .
Previous studies in Italy have mostly concerned lice [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19], while complete data on flies, ticks and flies are missing.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of arthropods associated with dead raptors day and night in wildlife rescue centers in different regions of Tuscany (central Italy).
In the geographical area considered in the present study , and in Italy [21, 22], the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the little owl (Athene noctua) belong to nocturnal and nocturnal raptor species, respectively. This may explain the high number of dead specimens of the two raptor species examined in this study.
Ticks Mites Lice And Fleas
This study showed a high prevalence of ecopods among the raptors examined, as 48 of the 75 birds examined (64%) scored positive for at least one type of arthropod. Of the ten raptor species examined, eight were tested for the presence of ecopods. Only two barn owls (Otes scops) and one peregrine (Falco peregrines) had a negative score. However, the prevalence found may be underestimated considering that many ectoparasite species can leave their hosts in dead birds.
Arthropods identified include lice (Digeriella fulva, D. rufa, Colpocephalum turbinateum, C. epivorus, Nosopon lucidum, N. claye, Crespedorhynchus platystomus, Laemobothrian tinnunculi, Kurodea subpachygaster, Phytriosphilciosiderosigreeros, Phytriosphilciosiderosigreeros, Phytriosophiligree) . spider (Kramerella lunulata, K. lyra, Kramerella sp., Glaucalges attenuatus, Hieracolichus nisi, Hieracolichus sp., Neotrombicula autumnalis) and tick (Haemaphysalis sp.) (Table 1, Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).
In particular, D. Fulva, c. Turbinatum, c. Platystomus and O. avicularia were identified in the honey buzzard (Pernis). apivorus), while D. rufa, N. lucidum, L. tinnunculi, N. autumnalis and Haemaphysalis sp. The Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was identified (Table 1, Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). The Sparrowhawk (A. nisus) is also known as H. Nisi. In addition, Hieracolichus spp. Insects were also identified in the examined ospreys (P. haliatus). However, it is not possible to distinguish species based on the structure and measurements of adults and according to the keys used for the identification of species within the genus [9, 11, 23, 24] (Table 1, Fig. 1 and Fig. . 2).
Among the arthropod species of nocturnal raptors, S. cursitans and K. lunulata, identified in the little owl (A. noctua), K. subpachygaster and Kramerella sp. Barn Owl (Taito alba) (Table 1, Figure 1 and Figure 2) identified with Barn Owl (Strix aluko), and K. lulata, K. Lira and G. Attenuates (14.29%, 1/7) were identified.
Backyard Chickens And Fleas
In most positive birds, their intensity is high (Table 1), especially in the case of lice and wing mites. In particular, a high concentration of at least one identified species of spider and / or spider was observed in each plate at each time and night (Table 1). Although lesions associated with several arthropod species identified in this study were previously described in raptors [1, 7], no macroscopic lesions were found in lice and wing mites found on the skin. or feathers of birds.
In some birds, other arthropod species have been identified simultaneously. Among the diurnal raptors, two different species of chewing lice, namely D. rufa and L. tinnunculi, and the larvae of the tick Hemaphysalis sp. (Table 1; Fig. 1 (2, 3); Fig. 2 (12)), identified in the kestrel (F. tinnunculus). Instead D. Rufa and another N. Kestrel (F. tinnunculus) were found simultaneously in the lucidum (Table 1; Figure 1 (2, 6)). Two honey bees (P. epivorus) were found to be good for both lice and mites; In particular, N. clay or C. epivorus (Table 1; Figure 1: 5, 7) and H. nisi (Table 1; Figure 2 (4, 5)) were found simultaneously in these two honey markets .
17 buzzards (B. buteo) are free of insects but seven of these birds have a large number of chewers. All these animals d. fulva (Table 1; Figure 1(1)), and C. turbinate (Table 1; Figure 1(4)) or c. Positive scores for Platystomes (Table 1; Figure 1(9)). Of those seven positive buzzards, two and one, respectively, were identified simultaneously.
Among the nocturnal raptors, three different spider species, namely K. lulata, K. lira and G. attenuates, were identified in a barn owl (T. alba) (Table 1; Fig. 2 (6-9)) , while six. little owls. (A. noctua) louse, s. Cursitans (Table 1; Fig. 1(10)) and Dean, K. lunulata (Table 1; Figure 2(7)) were found to be equally good.
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Another beetle, the hematophagous Hippoboscid flies O. Avicularia, adults were identified (Table 1; Figure 1 (11)). O. avicularia has been reported to infect many species of birds, including raptors , which can cause severe anemia, especially in young subjects . In addition, this type of fly can be a carrier of some pathogens of raptors, including Haemoproteus spp. and Trypanosoma spp. [25, 27, 28]. Interestingly, Hippoboscid flies can serve as phoretic hosts for some Diggeriella species that can be transported to new avian hosts .
N. autumnalis larvae were identified in large numbers in a kestrel (F. tinnunculus) and in the bag used to transport this animal (Table 1; Figure 2 (1)). In birds, the larvae of Neotrombicula spp. Insects are often found between the sternum and cloaca or the skin of the wings [30, 31], like the positive kestrels in this study. After about 2-5
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